Thursday, November 28, 2019
The Human Age Manpower Essay We generate power by connecting: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the visions of clients, Ã¢â¬ ¢ the motivations of people, Ã¢â¬ ¢ and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s now and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next in the World of Work. The World of Work trends that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified are foundationalÃ¢â¬âtheyÃ¢â¬â¢re foundational to how we act, where we invest and where we focus our thought leadership. 3 Navigating the Changing World of Work ManpowerÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of delivering innovative high-impact workforce solutions to enhance the competitiveness of the organizations and the individuals we serve is anchored in what we know. Based on our local expertise and global reach we know that there is an increasing velocity of change happening every day in the way work is performed. We have identified four megatrends impacting the World of Work. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stumble upon these trends, but researched them with intense curiosity. The Demographics and Talent Mismatch is the conundrum that both individuals and companies are feeling right now. As the working age population declines and companies are looking for talent, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re looking in a much more specific way, yet individuals are also being more selective when they can. Individual Choice is creeping in wherever possible. Individuals are exercising their choice as they realize they have the power to opt for or against a given job, which in turn is requiring companies to think differently about how they attract, retain and stay relevant to an ever select group of talented individuals. Rising Customer Sophistication is happening across the board. The transparency and velocity of information exchange throughout the entire value chain is creating innovation and tension at every level within that chain. We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Technological Revolutions are at the heart of almost all of this. Having the power to change where, when and how we work, enabling organizations and individuals to be more agile and innovative is happening on a daily basis and weÃ¢â¬â¢ve only seen the tip of the iceberg. The World of Work trends are foundationalÃ¢â¬âtheyÃ¢â¬â¢re foundational to how we act, where we invest and where we focus our thought leadership. They are drivers of secular growth at the core of our business as well as in our specialty areas and outcomebased solutions. It is our grasp of these trends that gives us the confidence that we are addressing our clients and candidates with real solutions Ã¢â¬â solutions that are practical, adaptable and flexible. Navigating the Changing World of Work 4 Demographics 5 Navigating the Changing World of Work and Talent Mismatch Demographic and economic shifts are accelerating the talent mismatch. The pressure to find the right skills in the right place at the right time will increase as working age populations decline, economies rebound, emerging markets rise, and the nature of work shifts. Navigating the Changing World of Work 6 Teachable Fit As the talent mismatch grows more severe, the Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a practical framework that becomes fundamental to talent strategyÃ¢â¬âand employers need a talent strategy that not only keeps up with business strategy, but accelerates it. 7 Navigating the Changing World of Work The recession has cast a new light on talent supply and management around the world. Unemployment is persistently high in developed and even in many developing countries, yet organizations worldwide report difficulty filling key positions. There are not enough sufficiently skilled people in the right places at the right times. Simultaneously, employers are seeking ever more specific skill sets and combinations of skills that will help drive the organization forward. Employers are also facing ongoing, systemic talent shortagesÃ¢â¬âsuch as those in the healthcare and energy industriesÃ¢â¬âare not going to fill the gaps one hire at a time. Instead, they must recalibrate their mindsets to consider candidates who may not meet all of the job specifications, but whose capability gaps can be filled in a timely and costeffective way. The key to success with this new mindset is the ability to identify a Teachable Fit Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a concept that focuses on four questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What capabilities are essential to performing the job? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Which of these are teachable in an efficient way? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is there adequate time and money to develop these capabilities in the candidate? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do candidates have the capacity to develop them? In any problem of supplydemand imbalance, employers have two options: to hold out for the perfect candidate or find the Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit. The focus here is on increasing the supply by changing the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset regarding sources of available talent. To fill large and systemic talent gaps, four potential labor pools are promising: location migrants, industry migrants, internal role changers and workforce entrants. Location migrants. The global workforce is on the move, and candidates may be willing to relocate for workÃ¢â¬ âespecially when the recession eases. However, employers are still learning to capitalize on this trend, while many governments are still unsure about whether or how to facilitate productive work migration. Three-fourths of workers said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d consider relocating for a better job opportunity, one-third said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be willing to consider relocating anywhere in the world, and Navigating the Changing World of Work 8 Teachable Fit 40 percent said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d consider moving permanently. Industry migrants. Some industries are cutting their workforces, while others are growing faster than the talent supply. Consider the talent available in low-growth industries that can migrate into new fields. Some of these people may have highly valued skillsÃ¢â¬âsuch s those in sales, finance, and managementÃ¢â¬âthat need translation to a new industry. Others may have skills adjacent to growing needsÃ¢â¬âsuch as technicians and field supportÃ¢â¬â Growing Industries ? Education ? Healthcare ? Professional Business Services Shrinking Industries ? Mining -1. 5 ?Manufacturing ? Utilities -1. 0 -0. 5 0 ?Other Services ? Wholesale Retail Trade ? Federal Government 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0 2. 5 Average annual rate of change (%) 3. 0 3. 5 9 Navigating the Changing World of Work Teachable Fit and require more extensive training to bridge skills gaps. Internal role changers. Often the best source of Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ talent is the people already in your companyÃ¢â¬âif your organization has the foresight and ability to redeploy them into different roles or even careers. Workforce entrants. The underemployed and underskilled are another potential pool, especially as local governmental agencies and others move to help them with training and other programs to enable their transition into the workforce. Training and development are the keys to successfully tapping into the talent pools listed above, especially among the last three groups. This is where the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ comes in. When employers canÃ¢â¬â¢t find candidates with the full range of skills needed for particular positions, they can recruit candidates who possess adjacent skills with an eye toward filling the gaps in their capabilities. The important point here is to understand how fillable those gaps areÃ¢â¬âboth in terms of technical skills and candidate mindsetsÃ¢â¬âand at what cost. Ã¢â¬Å"Teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a practical framework that can predict how successfully a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s skills gaps can be filled. The framework is an analytical tool that maps the capabilities needed for a given role against an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s likelihood of meeting those needs. The capabilities are divided into four groups: Navigating the Changing World of Work 10 Teachable Fit Knowledge of business or academic disciplines or industries. Formal or explicit knowledge comes through study and is confirmed by academic degrees and business certifications. Informal or tacit knowledge comes through experience and association with knowledgeable colleagues. The key here is to recognize the importance of tacit knowledge and the means of attaining it. Skills including both Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ skills (e. g. , technical or administrative 11 Navigating the Changing World of Work skills) and Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ skills (e. . , conflict resolution or strategic thinking). Skills tend to be applied and pragmatic. They are acquired through practice and grow with experience. Hard skills can be confirmed by certification or apprenticeship. It is vital to recognize the importance of soft skills, rather than focusing only on candidate assessments on the easier-to-measure hard skills . Values and Mindset represent what an individual seeks in life and on the jobÃ¢â¬âoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward work. These are revealed through both conversation and behavior and are relatively difficult to shape. They are also capabilities associated with jobs. Some jobs require more day-in-day-out initiative and selfmanagement than others. Some jobs depend on continuous learning and adaptation. The key here is to recognize these important traits when defining the job requirements. Personality and Intelligence are basic characteristics. Some Teachable Fit people are naturally outgoing and empathetic and thus natural fits for customer service roles; others are the opposite. Some roles rely heavily on analytical intelligence, others on synthesis or creativity, others on emotional intelligence and many on combinations of the above. Again, the idea is to be as precise as possible about what a job or role calls for in terms of these traits. After examining the four areas of capability, the employer then weighs each on two scales: Is it important? How essential is the capability to performing the work well? The tendency may be to over-emphasize knowledge (e. g. , through conventional academic degree requirements) and hard skills, when in fact the knowledge and skills directly required by the job may be basic. Similarly, the tendency may be to under-emphasize soft skills and traits when in fact they are absolutely essential to success in the role and the workplace. Employers should avoid this pitfall. According to research from talent and career management expert Right Management (a Manpower company) the key factors leading to accelerated performance arenÃ¢â¬â¢t top-notch technical skills or previous experience, but such qualities as cultural fit and interpersonal savvy. Is it teachable? To what extent and with what degree of difficulty can the capability be developed? Look first at the available methodsÃ¢â¬âcourses, mentors, opportunities to Navigating the Changing World of Work 12 Teachable Fit practice, and so onÃ¢â¬âboth inside and outside the organization. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that because a capability is theoretically teachable, an organization is equipped to teach it. A staff may be experienced, but the question is whether they are willing and able to double as instructors. Carefully consider the time and cost needed to develop the capability. If either is prohibitive, then for practical purposes the capability is not teachable. In developing each job taxonomy for Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit,Ã¢â¬ the idea is not to generalize capabilities or lower standards. Rather, itÃ¢â¬â¢s to be more detailed and specific about the pragmatic requirements of the job, and more focused on the gaps that can be filled. This approach can help determine what capabilities really matter for success. By dissecting job roles, employers can identify the skills that can migrate across industries or be developed with relative ease. As the global economy continues to improve, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s talent mismatch will become more pronounced. Employers must recognize that the talent imbalance is not something they can fix one position and one well-qualified candidate at a time. The Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ framework is a key step in an approach that is more expansive, systematic and sustainableÃ¢â¬âa talent strategy that not only keeps up with business strategy, but accelerates it. 3 Navigating the Changing World of Work Teachable Fit Teachable Fit Framework Knowledge Business or academic disciplines Capabilities Academic/Professional Discipline Industry/Function/Process Technical 1 (low) 5 (high) Important? Teachable? 1 (low) 5 (high) Skills Problem-Solving Communication Planning/Organization Collaboration/ Teamwork Fixed Demonstrated aptitudes and practices, both Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ Flexible Values Mindset Self-Management/Autonomy Initiative Motivation to Learn Service Orientation Attitudes that people bring to jobs and jobs need in people Personality Intelligence Basic character and mental traits Analytical Capacity to Learn Navigating the Changing World of Work 14 The Borderless Workforce Propelling the movement of talent around the world are widespread demographic changes Ã¢â¬â in particular the big gap in population growth between developed and developing countries. 15 Navigating the Changing World of Work TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s global workforce is on the move as never before. Most employers and governments, however, are a long way from fully understanding the complex issue of talent mobility and its growing role in the talent shortages that are affecting todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global labor markets. The complexities are many. These are not the one-time, one-way migrations of yesteryear. Talent goes where talent is needed, and flights home are readily available for those who wish to return. Work is moving too, as businesses set up operations near new markets and sources of supply. Propelling the movement of talent around the world are widespread demographic changesÃ¢â¬âin particular the big gap in population growth between developed and developing countries. According to the United Nations, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is expected to increase by 2. billion over the next 40 years, and almost all of The Borderless Workforce Employers Concerned About Losing National Talent that growth will take place in the less developed regions. Other factors are also accelerating the movement of workers. As a general rule, globalization creates further globalization: more people are exposed to communications about foreign cultures and more are traveling on vacation as well as for work. Englis h as a second language is growing fast; China, for example, is accelerating its English teaching programs to ensure that its managers and ustomer facing staff become more proficient in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most prevalent business language. So how should employers respond to the forces of talent mobility? Many see it as an opportunity to cut labor costs and elevate their skills mix. Others see it as a threat to their hold on their best talent. Of course, employers have only limited control over the factors that determine where workers work, and why. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know 15% No 54% Yes 31% Source: Manpower Inc. , Borderless Workforce Survey, 2008 Navigating the Changing World of Work 16 The Borderless Workforce The Taxonomy of the Talent Migration Brain Export: Common among some developing countries that choose to educate and export talent with the intention of comparable exchange in the medium- and long-term, via remittances, technological interchange or skills enhancement. Brain Globalization: Talent mobility as a component of international commerce. Transnational organizations and globalization require international mobility. Brain Exchange: Transnational organizations engage in a comparable exchange of staff members between country operations. Brain Circulation: Skilled personnel live and work in foreign countries for a certain period of time, then return to their country of origin or travel to a new destination country. Brain Drain: When the migration of people possessing a higher education and in-demand skills exceeds that countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to educate/train suitable replacements. Country of origin loses any return on its original investment in education and training. Brain Waste: When a country is unable to retain highly skilled/educated people, who then willingly travel to other destinations and perform functions that are beneath their skill level. Individuals often accept this Ã¢â¬Å"trade-offÃ¢â¬ for better living conditions. 17 Navigating the Changing World of Work The Borderless Workforce Some employers benefit from far-sighted, fact-driven governments that plan national talent strategies in detail and over the long term. Others chafe against inward- looking government immigration policies that make visa applications extremely time-consumingÃ¢â¬â to the point where many top foreign candidates go elsewhere. Talent mobility, then, is both the product and cause of an uneasy mix of unemployment and talent scarcity. It presents governments and employers with challenges f a scope and scale they have not previously encountered Ã¢â¬â yet it offers them opportunities that they find difficult to imagine. The increasingly mobile workforce has many faces. All sorts of workers are on the move Ã¢â¬â Jamaican agricultural workers each year head to Massachusetts in the U. S. , Indian construction workers to Dubai, Latvian stone workers to Northern Ireland in the U. K. , and British finance controllers to Shanghai, where 40,000 foreigners now work (Ã¢â¬Å"Number of Foreigners Working in China Soars,Ã¢â¬ PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Daily Online, April 4, 2006 http://english. people. om. cn/200604/04/ eng20060404_ 255781. html). The skills mix is broad as well. At the upper end of the skills spectrum are the professionals and managers whose movements form a kind of internal labor market within multinational companies. They may also involve short-term assignments or commuting across borders. Navigating the Changing World of Work 18 The Borderless Workforce The talent shortages, exacerbated by soaring wages, have sparked a big jump in the movement of skilled tradespeople as well. There also continues to be strong movement of low-skilled workers. In fact, laborers comprise the leading category now being filled with workers from foreign countries. In the many cases where employers hire for specific positions Ã¢â¬â either directly or through agencies Ã¢â¬â foreign 19 Navigating the Changing World of Work workers will generally end up in jobs for which they are a good match. But where workers tend to act on their own, they can end up in jobs for which they are significantly over-qualified. That mismatch between skills and roles is one of the factors contributing to a big shift that has never been so apparent before: a huge Ã¢â¬Å"reversemigrationÃ¢â¬ movement. Reverse migration, however, is not new and may have benefits beyond those for individuals. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) argues that the temporary employment of foreign workers introduces flexibility into the labor market. This can help dissuade employers from resorting to the use of undocumented workers. So what spurs people to leave their homes Ã¢â¬â other than the obvious issue of jobs elsewhere when there are none at home? There are many parallels that cut across all levels of The Borderless Workforce demographics and skills. Clearly, money and economic growth are significant drivers for those less skilled, and both physical and cultural distance militate against them moving. For white collar workers, there can be many other factors moving them away from home. Many go for the adventure, to acquire new skills, to learn a language or improve their language skills. Still others see such moves as fast paths to accelerate careers; younger up-and-comers can often take on more responsibility and gain more experience and business skills more rapidly in a foreign country than they ever could at home. In the new global economy, more and more forward thinking employers choose to send their Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialÃ¢â¬ managers overseas to gain the experience of other cultures and working styles. In fact, for managers in many multinationals, a crossborder assignment is now considered mandatory for those aspiring to the executive suite. In the past few years, the percentage of SP 500 CEOs with international experience has increased from 26 percent to 34 percent (Ã¢â¬Å"The Route to the Top for TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Enterprise Leader,Ã¢â¬ Spencer Stuart, 2008, http://content. spencerstuart. com/sswebsite/pdf/lib/ GMstudy0408. pdf). Not everyone believes that talent mobility is a good thing. There are the obvious factors Navigating the Changing World of Work 20 The Borderless Workforce of dislocation from family and friends at home, cultural alienation and prejudice in the new workplace. And there can often be language issues Ã¢â¬â sometimes even within a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s borders Ã¢â¬â along with fierce competition with other migrants and with locals who see the newcomers as stealing jobs. Talent mobility is a growing part of the solution to employersÃ¢â¬â¢ shortages of talent. But it is arguable whether even the best multinationals have 21 Navigating the Changing World of Work arnessed talent mobility as it must now be harnessed. It is not as simple as enhancing the current expatriate-deployment programs or adding enticements to relocation packages. What is needed is a holistic, far-sighted strategic approach. The process of forecasting and talent mobility planning will become an integral component of th e business planning process as talent shortages worsen in the years ahead. The process of forecasting and talent mobility planning will become an integral component of the business planning process as talent shortages worsen in the years ahead. The Borderless Workforce Navigating the Changing World of Work 22 Individual 23 Navigating the Changing World of Work Choice Individual Choice is eliminating the one-size-fits-all approach and elevating the need for one-size-fits-one. Individuals are exercising the power of choice in all situations, choosing for and against opportunities. The increased specificity of skills that employers are seeking, coupled with the increased confidence in choice that individuals are exercising, is profoundly impacting governments, organizations and individuals worldwide. Navigating the Changing World of Work 24 The Underleveraged Solution In the developed world, meanwhile, the population is aging and the number of young people entering the workforce is shrinking. There simply will not be enough qualified workers to fill the jobs that will drive growth. 25 Navigating the Changing World of Work Due to the indisputable fact that the working-age population is shrinking, the global talent squeeze will only get tighter, especially after we fully emerge from the current financial crisis. The recession doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mitigate matters over the long term. Even now, positions at all levels continue to go unfilled in such service-sector fields as engineering, IT and healthcare. To address the problem, governments and enterprises must figure out how to expand their workforces. To do that, they should look to one particular demographic group that is woefully underrepresented in the formal economy and has much more to contribute: women. It is clear the world of work is undergoing a transformation. As the service sector continues its ascent, the need for workers is great and growingÃ¢â¬âeven now. Economists say the number of service-sector jobs will grow by at least 500 million between 2004 and 2015. In the developed world, meanwhile, The Underleveraged Solution the population is aging and the number of young people entering the workforce is shrinking. There simply will not be enough qualified workers to fill the jobs that will drive growth. The solution is to expand the labor pool. In 2008, the International Labour Organization (ILO) found that at the global level, the employment-to-population ratio Ã¢â¬â an index to how well economies are taking advantage of the productive potential of heir working-age population Ã¢â¬â was 49. 1 percent for women in 2007 compared to 74. 3 percent for men. The contemporary world of work sorely needs women to participate in higher numbers and appears to offer greater potential for the kind of flexibility that women so often need. Yet all too often women canÃ¢â¬â¢t, or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t, participate. The benefits of women participating in t he workforce are striking, but there are many barriers. Some of the barriers are cultural and therefore difficult to address at the policy level. But many are structuralÃ¢â¬âvestiges of an age when the five-day, 40-hour week was the norm. That model is impractical for many women who bear primary responsibility for childcare and other family obligations. Companies and countries that evolve quickly to bring women into the workforce today give themselves a better chance to prosper over the long term. Those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t will struggle to stay competitive. Navigating the Changing World of Work 26 The Underleveraged Solution Getting women into the workforce is vital, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s just as important to keep them there. A paradigm shift is in order. We must value results and knowledge gained rather than time spent in the office. Paths toward advancement must be created for womenÃ¢â¬âand othersÃ¢â¬âwho do not sit in an office five days a week, eight hours a day, so that they can achieve success at a pace that works for them. Policies that support the rights of women and allow them to develop professionally while balancing work and home duties will reward organizations with higher employee engagement and retention levels. A paradigm shift is in order. We must value results and knowledge gained rather than time spent in the office. 27 Navigating the Changing World of Work The Underleveraged Solution Navigating the Changing World of Work 28 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The challenge presented by an aging workforce and pervasive talent shortages is complex and multi-faceted, which is why employers are still struggling to determine how best to plan ahead and gain a strategic advantage. 29 Navigating the Changing World of Work What percentage of your workforce is planning to retire in the next five to 10 years and what impact will it have on your organization? This is a key question that should be on the agenda for discussion at management meetings worldwide, as talent shortages worsen and replacements for those exiting the workforce become more difficult to find. But, even armed with this knowledge, few employers are finding any long-term solutions to prevent the obvious talent shortages and brain drain that are clearly emerging. The challenge presented by an aging workforce and pervasive talent shortages is complex and multi-faceted, which is why employers are still struggling to determine how best to plan ahead and gain a strategic advantage; it is not just a question of how to get older workers to remain relevant and continue contributing to the workforce; it is also about how to get the most out of the The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce ounger generations, whose numbers are too small to fully replace those who have gone before them, and how to do this in a way that is consistent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Strategic plans to attract critical talent to the organization and retain the near-retirement population in key roles will become a key focus at this point, as it is now clear where the organization should be dedicating resour ces to ensure a steady supply of key talent. At the same time, the organization will need to identify and develop high-potential employees to replace those exiting due to retirement. This cycle of demographic forecasting and workforce planning will become an integral component of the business planning process as talent shortages worsen. One of the key reasons that employers are not doing more to try and recruit or retain older workers as part of their talent management strategy is simply that they do not yet understand how to do so effectively. Employers have done much in recent years to provide better worklife balance for working parents; they have not yet gained a full understanding of what work-life balance means to the older worker. Navigating the Changing World of Work 30 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The key to engagement of the older adult in the workforce is to focus on the same issues that are important to other age groups: Performance-based compensation: Sending a clear message about the value of the individual rather than just paying more due to job tenure allows the older worker to know how he is performing compared to his peers. Having a clear understanding of what is expected: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that an older employee knows what is expected of her just because of her tenure. New management and a rapidly changing business world can leave an older worker uncertain of her priorities; just as it can her younger peer. Having a sense of belonging: As the demographic composition of work groups evolves, care should be taken to ensure everyone is included in team- building activities and informal communication channels. Being treated equally and with respect: Disparate behavior toward older workers can happen in subtle ways such as planning team-building activities that the older worker cannot relate to, or giving all of the new learning opportunities to the younger members of the team. Supervisors need to be vigilant in recognizing the diversity of their team and making decisions that provide equal treatment. 31 Navigating the Changing World of Work The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce Access to tools, resources, information and training: As with all other employees, the older worker needs the same level of tools, resources and information to perform effectively in her role. Further, it should not be assumed that because an individual is older and quite capable she is no longer interested in receiving training. Companies that create a culture of continuous learning for all employees will be the most successful in engaging their workforces. Open and honest two-way feedback: Often, the older worker whose skills have faded is unaware that she is falling behind because supervisors and peers do not want to hurt her feelings. This is a disservice to the individual, who continues to require honest feedback in order to address performance issues adequately. Conversely, if the older worker does not have a two-way communication channel with her supervisor, she may feel unable to express her wishes to adjust her work relationship ue to changing priorities in her life. As a result, the supervisor misses the opportunity to retain the employee in a modified role and instead, loses her to retirement prematurely. Strong teamwork: As with all employees, a strong sense of teamwork results in greater productivity for the team members. This remains true throughout an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s career, regardless of h is full-time or parttime status. Navigating the Changing World of Work 32 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce Recognition: It is never a mistake to recognize a job well done. The need to provide recognition of employees across all age groups and levels is often overlooked by management, especially during the extremely busy periods when recognition matters most. Opportunities for career advancement: Career development and advancement opportunities should remain available to all employees throughout the duration of 33 Navigating the Changing World of Work their careers. It is a mistake to assume that an individual is Ã¢â¬Å"coasting to retirement. Understanding how the role contributes to the success of the business: As business continues to evolve, it remains important for all employees to have a clear understanding of how they are contributing to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall goals. A sustainable and growing economy will not be possible in the talent-poor future without a strong and vibrant labor market that includes talent pools that are currently under-represented in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workforc e. The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The Multi-Generational Workforce Traditionalist Boomer Generation X Generation Y Born 1928Ã¢â¬â1945 Born 1946Ã¢â¬â1964 Born 1965Ã¢â¬â1979 Born 1980Ã¢â¬â Each generation has different assumptions, motivations and expectations about work and makes different choices when it comes to where, when and how they work. Regardless of generation, individuals need to think about the choices they make, as they are choosing against one thing when opting for another. Organizations need to adopt more flexible mindsets, adjust work arrangements and people practices to recruit, retain and leverage the multigenerational workforce to win. Navigating the Changing World of Work 34 Rise of 35 Navigating the Changing World of Work Customer Sophistication CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations around price and value will rise, shifting the key competitive differentiator from a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s access to capital to access to talent. Customers have more access to information, experts and lower cost channels which increases visibility and subsequent pressure on companies to deliver value. Employers have become more sophisticated in assessing their workforce and are looking for specific skills that enable their companies to do more with less to meet ever-rising consumer needs. Navigating the Changing W
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Memo on Behavior Memo: to InterClean managersSubject: Management BehaviorThis memo is to encourage all first line managers to consider the impending finalization of the merger between InterClean and EnvironTech. This should a positive move for our two companies and it will be our responsibility to orchestrate this event in order to combine the personnel of both companies into a larger and even more successful business. The combination of these two fine organizations is no less than the merging of two cultures. Both companies include personnel, management styles, policies and procedures which, although different, are representative of previous successful implementation towards similar goals. Neither former company's culture may be perceived or rendered as inferior to the other. A period of evaluation and reasonable consideration must occur in order to assimilate the two companies.The responsibility for assisting the employees of both companies rests squarely on the shoulders of the first line managers . The employees of each of the previous organizations are accustomed to the unique management styles of their former organizations and they will be looking for leadership in accepting new and different methods and approaches towards the successful completion of their tasks.A few issues of SHRM's monthly publication HR Maga...Problems and conflicts are expected to emerge. This is inevitable and the managers will be called upon to realize that an open approach and patience will be expected. Resolution of such conflicts will be with a vision for a profitable future for the newly formed organization. This will be a task of integration of functions from each of the companies with the idea of maximizing productivity.I would encourage a proactive approach in order to counteract any friction that may develop. There will be a certain amount of posturing by some for retention of previous authority. This is natural and should be dealt with in a way which will allow all...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Literature Review - Thesis Example Applying the lean principles is an important part of the stages where the product development takes place. The key part of VSM is to understand and visually represent the processes involved. It is essentially therefore a modelling of all processes involved in the product development. When the product is developed or even during the design stage, it is also necessary to validate these processes. The various case studies mentioned in this paper show how lean principles have been applied and how VSM is carried out, for what purpose and the outcomes achieved. It is shown that at the heart of this is the extraction of as much value as possible. The important element that enables the above is data. Data collection and analysis is therefore the foundation for the entire endeavour. However, managing the data is not a straightforward task. There are issues of quality and procedures to consider for data management and movement, security and traceability, and appropriate data modelling. Data warehousing provides a total architecture for all data collection, storage and retrieval requirements, which is suitable for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Moreover, data mining allows lean principles to be applied for extracting valuable data. Vibration testing is one particular area in which lean principles and VSM not only have significant potential but their use is critical. This is especially so for safety reasons besides improvements to structural design, increasing the longevity of the product and enhancing its overall quality. This review of the literature delves on the ideas and studies of others on the topic of value stream mapping. This could help to gather useful ideas, improve existing ones, and also put the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s own study into context. Following a brief description of lean principles and methodologies, we describe Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in detail and discuss the significance of value as well as
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Barriers of Critical Thinking - Essay Example Some of these barriers are discussed briefly as follows: Self-serving bias refers to the tendency of individuals to elevate the perception of self in a manner that helps them in protecting their self-esteem. This concept entails that people do not always think about and perceive things as they since it results in self-criticism and viewing themselves in an unpleasant light (Kirby, Goodpaster, and Levine 1999). While self-confidence is a critical element for success, however over-confidence in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own abilities acts as a barrier to success since it prevents us from analyzing our weaknesses and overseeing our flaws, leading to disastrous results in the long run. Example: A strong sense of belief in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and the perception that you are more intelligent and capable than others; tendency to shift the blame regarding any negative experiences or outcomes in your life on others and refusing to accept responsibility for own decisions or actions; a strong sense of belief in becoming a famous actor despite having absolutely no talent and being told so by those around you are some of the examples of self-serving bias. According to Glabraith (2004) hegemonic assumptions refer to the assumptions individuals embrace willingly in a bid to protect their best interests (p. 342) and safeguard them from any impending hurt or any other similar negative feelings such as guilt, anxiety, or fear. Such hegemonic assumptions prevent us from critically analyzing things as they are and blinds us from pursuing our best interests. Example: A strong belief in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s friends or relatives and blindly following their advice without thinking or analyzing the intended purpose and expected outcome is one example of hegemonic assumptions. It refers to the tendency among individuals to perceive reality with a highly biased attitudes based on stereotypes and unwarranted
Monday, November 18, 2019
Small scale action research study - Essay Example Findings V. Analysis and Interpretation VI. Conclusion and Recommendations Small Scale Action Research Study I. Introduction This research study deals with how years 1 and 2 primary school children in my school approach reading; these children are aged five to six years. The research study is aimed at not only finding out how their reading skills can be improved, but also how this relates to the previous reading levels in my school. Reading among these children has been gradually deteriorating with time. It has been characterized by several difficulties. The nature of these reading problems coincides with what most reputable scholarly researchers have already studied sometime back cons in relation to this. The nature of the problems of readers who are struggling is quite complex. Over time, study has indicated that the complexity emanates from the individual differences that are present within any group that undertakes a reading. The reading struggle among the children is characteriz ed by the different approaches, skills, and dispositions. This makes it difficult for those reading to make sense of the print. Studies continue to reveal that both poor decoding and poor comprehension are among examples of aspects that struggling readers may posses. Besides, they also have difficulties in both vocabulary and language skills (Allington and McGill-Franzen, 2009, p. 221). Since September 2010, the Early Reading Research (ERR) has been used in my school. Since the time it was introduced, I have taken note of reading improvement among the children. The schools has teaching assistants who are not only experienced, but also industrious, and have really been surprised by the steps of improvement in reading levels attained by the children up to this far. I am still not certain of the fact that the National Literacy Strategy is the best approach to reading in our schools, due to the observed worsening trend of the reading level among the children. Before the National Literac y Strategy came into force, there was another Reading programme referred to as the Early Reading Research by Essex Lea. Thus the research question in this study is how effective is the Early Reading Research (ERR) by Essex Lea in solving the reading problem of children in my school? Interest for this area of study is motivated by the outcomes of the recently carried out research by the Essex Lea and the Leverhulme Trust on the efficiency of the Early Reading Research in comparison to other reading programmes. The study was based on classroom empirical investigations that was carried out on a large scale basis coupled with small scale cases to establish how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning could be impacted with various principles of instruction. Apart from establishing the most efficient methods of teaching reading, Early Reading Research was also used in examining not only the level to which age and skill reading targets could be reached by each child, but also the prevention of particul ar difficulties in reading. This research study encompasses various sections that reveal the literature review, method of data collection, findings, analysis and interpretation, and conclusion together with recommendations. II. Literature Review a. The Significance of Reading Most people do not just take reading lightly, but also they do not easily see how difficult life can be for those who have not read. Print is available at almost every place that surrounds us that is on adverts, shop names, product instructions and novels, just to mention but a
Friday, November 15, 2019
Design of Handshake Mode Design Of Handshake Mode 8255A Using 8086 Introduction: 8255 is a widely used general purpose programmable devices, can be compatible with any microprocessor. The 8255 includes three programmable ports, one of which can be used for bidirectional data transfer. This is an important additional feature in comparison with the 8155 I/O ports. The 8255 has 24 I/0 pins that can be grouped primarily in two 8 bit parallel ports. A B, with the remaining eight bits as port c. the eight ports of port c can be used as individual bits or be grouped in two 4-bit ports. The figure shows all the functions of 8255, classified according to two modes: the BSR mode and I/P mode. The BSR mode is used to set or reset the bits in port c. the I/O mode is further divided into three modes : mode 0, mode 1 and mode 2. In mode 0, all the ports function as simple I/O ports. Mode 1, is a handshake mode where by ports A and/or B use bits from port C as handshake signals. In the handshake mode, two types of I/P data can be transferred implemented: status check and inter rupt. In mode 2, port A can be set up for bidirectional data transfer using handshake signals from port C, and port B can be used to set up either in mode 0 or mode 1. Programmable Parallel Ports And Handshake Input/Output: We use port devices to input data and output data to the microprocessor. Most of the available port devices such as 8255A on the sdk-86 board, contain two or three ports which can be programmed to operate in one of the several different modes. The different modes allow us to see for many common types of parallel data transfer. Various methods of parallel input data transfer are Simple Input/Output: When we need to get the digital data from a simple switch such as thermostat into a microprocessor all we do is that we connect the switch to an input port line and read it anytime. Similarly when we need to output the data to a simple output device such as an LED, all we do is to connect the led buffer on an output port pin and output the logic level required to turn on the light. The led is always there and ready, so you can send data to it at any time. Simple Strobe I/O: In many applications, valid data is present on an external device only at a certain time, so it must be read in at that time. An example of this is the ascii-encoded keyboard. When key is pressed. Circuitry on the key board sends out the ascii code for the pressed key on eight parallel data lines, and then sends out a strobe signal on another line to indicate the valid data is present on the eight data lines. As shown in fig-4.9 we can connect this strobe line to an input port line and poll it to determine when we can put valid data from the keyboard. Another alternative is to connect the strobe line to an interrupt input of the processor and have an interrupt service procedure read in the data when the processor receives an interrupt. The point here is that this transfer is time dependent. We can read the data only when a strobe pulse tells us that the data is valid. Fig 9 1b shows the timing waveforms which represent this type of operation. The sending device such as a keyboard, outputs parallel data on the data lines, and then outputs at the stb signal to let us know that the valid data is present. For low rates of data transfer such as from a keyboard to a microprocessor, a simple strobe transfer works well. However for higher data transfer speed this method does not work because there is no signal which tells the sending device when it is safe to send the next data byte. In other words, he sending system might send data bytes faster than the receiving system could read them. To prevent this problem a handshake data transfer scheme is used. Single-Handshake I/O: figure 9-2 shows the circuit connections and figure 91-c shows some example timing waveforms for a handshake data transfer from a peripheral device to a microprocessor. The peripheral outputs some parallel data and sends stb signal on a polled or interrupt basis and reads in the byte of data. Then the microprocessor sends a acknowledgement signal to the peripheral to indicate that the data has been read and the peripheral can send the next byte of data from the view point of the microprocessor this operation is referred to as handshake or strobe input. These same wave forms might represent a handshake output from a microprocessor to parallel printer. In this case the microprocessor outputs a character to the printer and asserts an stb signal to the printer to tell the printer , Ã¢â¬Å" here is a character for you.Ã¢â¬ When the printer is ready it answers back with ack signal to tell the microprocessor, Ã¢â¬Å" I got that oneÃ¢â¬ send me another. The point of this handshake sche me is that the sending device or system is designed so that it does not send the next data byte until the receiving device or system indicates with an ack signal that it is ready to receive the next byte. Double-Handshake Data Transfer: For data transfers where even more coordination is required between the sending system and the receiving system a double handshake is used the sending device asserts its stb line low to ask Ã¢â¬Å" are you readyÃ¢â¬ ? the receiving system raises its ack line high to say I m ready. The peripheral device then sends the byte of data and raises its stb line high to say I have the data thank you. And I wait your next request to send the next byte of data. For handshake output of this type from a microprocessor to a peripheral the waveforms are the same but the microprocessor sends the stb signal and the data the peripheral sends the ack signal. In the accompanying laboratory manual it is shown hoe to interface with a speech-synthesizer device using this type of handshake system. Implementing Handshake Data Transfer: For handshake data transfer a microprocessor can determine when it is time to send the next data byte on a polled or interrupt basis. The interrupt approach is usually used because it makes better use of the processors time. The stb or ack signal for these handshake transfers can be produced on a port pin by instructions in the program. However this method usually uses too much processor time, do parallel port devices such as the 8255A have been designed to automatically manage the handshake operation. The 8255A for example can be programmed to automatically receive an stb signal from a peripheral, send an interrupt signal to the processor and send the ack signal to the peripheral at the proper times. 8255A Internal Block Diagram And System Connections: The diagram shows the internal structure of the 8255A. form the diagram it is observed that there are 24 input output lines. Port A can be used as an 8 bit input port or as an output port. Like port B can be used as an 8 bit input port or as an 8 bit output port. Port C can b used as an 8 bit input output port or as 4 bit port or to produce handshake signals for ports a nd b. the signal lines used to connect to the device to the system busses. 8 data lines allow us to write data bytes to a port or the control register and to read bytes from the port or the status register under the control of the rd wr lines. The address inputs A0 and A1 allow us to selectively access one of the three ports or the control register. The internal addresses for the device are port A 00, port B, 01; port C;10; control, 11. Asserting the cs input of the 8255A enables it for reading or writing. The cs input will be connected to the output of the address decoder circuitry to select the device when it is addressed. The reset input of the 8255A is connected to the system reset line so that, when the system is reset all the port lines are initialized as input lines.this is done to prevent destruction of circuitry connected to port lines. If port lines are initialized as outputs after a power up or reset the port might try to output to the output of the device connected to the port. The possible argument between the two outputs might destroy one or both of them. Therefore all the programmable port devices initialize their port lines as inputs when reset. The given figure shows that how a 8255 can be connected to a 8086, here one 8255 is connected to the lower half of the 8086 data bus and the other is conneceted to the upper half of the 8086. This is done so that byte can be transferred by enabling one device, or a word can be transferred by enabiling both devices at the same time. According to truth table for the input output port address decoder the A40 8255A on the lower half of the data bus will be enabled for a base address of FFF8H, and the A35 8255A will be enabled for a base address of FFF9H. another point to notice is that system address line A1 is connected to the 8255A A0 inputs, and system address line A2 is connected to the 8255A A1 inputs. With these connections the system address for the three ports and the control register in the A 40 8255A will be FFF8H, FFFAH, FFFCH, FFFEH. Likewise the system address for three ports and the control register of the A 35 8255A are FFF9H, FFFBH, FFFDH, and FFFFH. 8255a Operational Modes And Initiallization: MODE 0: When we want to see the port for simple input or output without handshaking we initialize the port in mode 0. If both port A and port B are initialized in mode 0, then the two halves of port c can be used together as an additional 8-bit port or they can be used individually as two 4 bit ports. When used as outputs, the port c lines can be individually set or reset by sending a special control word to the control register address. The two halves of port C are independent so one half can be initialized as input and the other half as output. MODE 1: When we want to use port A or port B for handshake input or output operation. We initialize that the port in MODE 1. In this mode some of the pins in port C function as handshake lines. Pins PCO, PC1 and PC2 function as handshake lines for port B if it is initialized in MODE1. If port A is initialized as handshake mode input port then pins PC3,PC4,and PC5 function as handshake signals. Pins PC6 and PC7 are avalible for use as input lines and output lines. If port A is initialized as a handshake output port, then port c pins PC3,PC6,PC7 function as handshake signals. Port c pins PC4 and PC5 are available for use as input or output lines. Since the 8255 often used in mode 1. MODE 2: Only port a can be initialized in mode 2 port a can be used for bidirectional handshake data transfer. This means that data can be output or input on the same eight lines. The 8255A might be used in this mode to extend the system bus to slave microprocessor or to transfer data bytes to and from a floppy disk controller board. If port A is initialized in MODE 2 then PINS PC3 through PC7 are used as handshake lines in port A. the other three pins PC0 through PC2 can be used for input output if port B is in mode 0. The three pins will be used for port B handshake lines if port b is initialized in mode 1. Constructing And Sending 8255A Control Words: Figure 9-5 shows the formats for the two 8255A control words. Note that the msb of the control word tells the 8255A which control word your are sending it. We use the mode definition control word format to tell the device what modes we want the ports to operate in. we use the bit set /reset control word format . we want to set or reset the output on a pin of port c or when we want to enable the interrupt output signals for the handshake data transfers. Both control words are sent to the control register address of the 8255A. as usual, initializing a device such as this consists of working our way through the steps as described already. As an example for this device suppose that we want to initialize the 8255A in figure 7-8 as follows. Port B as mode 1 input Port A mode 0 output Port C upper as inputs Port C bit 3 as output The base address of the A40 8255A is FFF8H, and the control register address is FFFEH. The next step is to make up the control by figuring out what to put in each of the little boxes, one bit at a time. Figure 9-6a shows the control word which will program the 8255A as desired for this example. The figure alsi shows how we should document any control words to make for use in our programs using figure 9-5 a work our way through this word to make sure we see why each bit has the value it does. To send the control word we load the control word in AL with a MOV AL,10001110B instruction point DX at the port address with the MOV DX,0FFFEH instruction and send the control word to the 8255A control register with the out DX, AL instruction. An example of how to use the bit set/reset control word suppose that we want to output a 1 to (set) bit 3 of port c, which was initialized as an output with the mode set control word above. To set or reset a port c output pin, we use the bit set/reset control word shown in figure. Make bit d7 to 0 to identify this as a bit set/reset control word and put a 1 in bit d0 to specify that we want to set a bit of port c. bits d2 d3 and d1 are used to tell the 8255A which bit we want to act on. For this example we want to set bit 3 so we put 011 in these three bits. For simplicity and compatibility with future products make the other 3 bits of the control words 0. The result 00000111B is shown with proper documentation in the figure. To send this control word to the 8255A simply load it into AL with the MOV AL,00000111B instruction, point dx at the control register address with the MOV DX ,0FFFEH instruction if DX is not already pointing there, and send the control word with the OUT DX,AL instruction. 8255A Handshake- Interfacing To A Microcomputer- Controlled Lathe: All the machines in the machine shop of our computer controlled electronics factory operate under microcomputer. One example of these machines is a lathe which makes bolts for long rods of stainless steel. The cutting instructions of each type of bolt that we need to make are stored on Ã ¾ in wode teletype like metal tape. Each instruction is represented by a series of holes in the tape. A tape reader pulls the through an optical or mechanical sensor to detect the hole patterns and converts these to an 8 bit parallel code. The microcomputer reads the instruction codes for the tape reader on a handshake basis and sends the appropriate control instructions to the lathe. The microcomputer must also monitor various conditions around the lathe. It must, for example make sure the lathe has cutting lubricant oil, is not out of material to work on, and is not jammed up in some way. Machines that operate in this way are often referred to as computer numerical control or CNC machines. The figure given shows from how we might use an 8255A to interface a microcomputer to the tape reader and lathe. Our first task is to make up the control word which will initialize the 8255A In the correct modes for this application. To do this start by making a list showing how we want each port or group of pins to function. Then put in the control word bits that implement those pin functions. Port A needs to be initialized for handshake input ( mode 1 ) because instruction codes have to be read in from the tape reader on the handshake basis. Port B needs to be initialized for simple output (mode 0) no handshaking is needed here because this port is being used to output simple on or off control signals to the lathe. Port C , bits pc0 pc1 and pc2 are used for simple input of sensor signals for the lathe. Port C bits pc3 pc4 and pc5 function as the handshake signals for the data transfer from thr tape reader connected to port A. Port C bit pc6 is used for output of the stop/go signal to the tape reader. Port C bit pc7 is not used for this example. Figure 9-b shows the control word to initialize the 8255A for these pin functions. We send this word to the control register address of the 8255A.In order for the handshake input data transfer from the tape reader to work correctly , the interrupt request signal from bit pc3 has to be enabled. This is done by sending a bit set/reset control word for the appropriate bit of port c. fig 9-9 shows the port c bit that must be set to enable the interrupt output signal for each of the 8255A handshake modes. For example here port A is being used for handshake input, so according to figure 9-9 port C bit pc4 must be set to enable the interrupt output for this operation. The bit set/reset control word to do this is 00001001B. we send this bit set/reset control word to the control address of the 8255A. Handshake data transfer from the tape reader to the 8255A can be stopped by disabling the 8255A interrupt output on port C, pin c3. This is done by reseting bit pc4 with a bit set/reset control word of 00001000. As another example of 8255A interrupt output enabling suppose that we are using port B as handshake output port. According to figure 9-9 we need to set bit pc2 to enable the 8255A interrupt output signal. The bit set/reset control word to do this is 00000101. Now we see how the actual data transfer takes place in handshake mode for which the machine would operate. After initializing everything we would probably read port C, bits pc0 pc1 and pc2 to check if the lathe was ready to operate. For any 8255A mode we read port C by simplt going an input from the port C address. Then we output a start command to the tape reader on the bit pc6.this is done with a bit set/reset command. Assuming that we want to reset bit pc6 to start the tape reader, the bit set/reset control word for this is 00001100. When the tape reader receives the go command. It will start the handshake data transfer to the 8255A. The tape reader starts the process by sending out a byte of data by sending out a byte of data to port A on its eight data lines. The tape reader then asserts its stb line low to tell the 8255A that a new byte of data has been sent. In response the 8255A raises its input buffer full (IBF) signal on pc5 high to tell the tape reader that it is ready for the data. When the tape reader detects the IBF signal at a high level, it raises its stb signal high again. The rising edge of the stb signal has two effects on the 8255A. it first latches the data byte in the input latches of the 8255A. once the data is latched the tape reader can remove the data byte in preparation for sending the next data byte. This is shown by the dashed section on the right side of the data waveform in figure. The rising edge on the stb signal will cause the 8255A to output an interruot request signal in the microprocessor on bit pc3. The processors response to the interrupt request will be to go to an interrupt service procedure which reads in the byte of data latched in port A. when the RD signal from the microprocessor goes low for this read of port A, the 8255A will automatically reset its interrupt request signa on pc3. This is done so that a second interrupt cannot be caused by the sane data transfer, when the processor raises its RD signal high again at the end of the read operation, the 8255A automatically drops its IBF signal on pc5 low again. IBF going low again is the signal to the tape reader that the data transfer is complete and that it can be send the next byte of data. The time between when the 8255A sends the interrupt request signal and when the processor reads the data byte from port A depends on when the processor gets around to servicing that interrupt. The point here is that this time doesnt matter. The tape reader will not send the next byte until it detects the IBF signal has gone low again . The transfer cycle will then repeat for the next data byte. After the processor reads in the lathe control instruction byte from the tape reader, it will decode this instruction and output the appropriate control byte to the lathe on port B of the 8255A. the tape reader then sends the next instruction byte. If the instruction tape is made into a continuous loop, the lathe will keep making the specified parts until it runs out of material. The unused bit of port c , pc7 could be connected to a mechanism which loads In more material so the lathe can continue. Parallel Printer InterfaceÃ¢â¬âHandshake Output Example: This refers to the hardware connections and the software required to interface with a parallel printer in a system which does not have a BIOS procedure we can all to do the job. For most common printers such as IBM pc printers, the Epson dot matrix printers data to be printed is sent to the printers, and the Panasonic dot-matrix printers data printed is sent to the printer as ASCII characters on eight parallel lines. The printer receives the characters to be printed and stores them in an internal RAM buffer. When the printer detects a second carriage return, It prints out the second row of characters, etc. the process continues until all the desired characters have been printed. Transfer of the ASCII codes from a microcomputer to a printer must be done on a handshake basis because the microcomputer can send characters much faster than the printer can print them. The printer must in some way let the microcomputer know that its buffer is full and that it cannot accept any more characters until ir prints some out. A common standard for interfacing with parallel printers is the centronics parallel interface standard, named for the company that developed it. References: Microprocessors and interfacing programming and hardware second edition by Douglas V. Hall TATA McGRAW-hill edition. Microprocessor architecture, programming, and applications with the 8085 by Ramesh Gaonkar fifth edition, penram international publication Fundementals of microprocessor and microcomputers byB. Ram, Dhanpat Raipublication.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
What is the Golden Ratio The golden ration can occur anywhere. The golden proportion is the ratio of the shorter length to the longer length which equals the ratio of the longer length to the sum of both lengths. The golden ratio is a term used to describe proportioning in a piece. In a work of art or architecture, if one maintained a ratio of small elements to larger elements that was the same as the ratio of larger elements to the whole, the end result was pleasing to the eye. The ratio for length to width of rectangles is 1.61803398874989484820. The numeric value is called Ã¢â¬Å"phiÃ¢â¬ . The Golden Ratio is also known as the golden rectangle. The Golden Rectangle has the property that when a square is removed a smaller rectangle of the same shape remains, a smaller square can be removed and so on, resulting in a spiral pattern. The Golden Rectangle is a unique and important shape in mathematics. The Golden Rectangle appears in nature, music, and is often used in art and architecture. Some thing special about the golden rectangle is that the length to the width equals approximately 1.618Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Golden Ration = Length = 1.6 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Width The golden rectangle has been discovered and used since ancient times. Our human eye perceives the golden rectangle as a beautiful geometric form. The symbol for the Golden Ratio is the Greek letter Phi. The Fibonacci Series was discovered around 1200 A.D. Leonardo Fibonacci discovered the unusual properties of the numeric series, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s how it was named. It is not proven that Fibonacci even noticed the connection between the Golden Ratio meaning and Phi. The Renaissance used the Golden Mean and Phi in their sculptures and paintings to achieve vast amounts balance and beauty. The Golden Ratio in Architecture and Art Throughout the centuries, artists have used the golden ratio in their own creations. An example is Ã¢â¬Å"postÃ¢â¬ by Picasso. When using a golden mean gauge you can see that the lines are spaced to the Golden Proportion. The Golden Ratio also appears in the Parthenon in Athens. It was built about 440 B.C.; it forms a perfect Golden Rectangle. The exterior dimensions form Golden Rectangle. The Golden Ratio also appears in the front face, which is found to be Phi times as wide as it is tall, so therefore it is a Golden Rectangle. The height of the roof is Phi times the space between the tops of the columns and the bottom of the roof.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Currently, Brazil with its population hitting 186. 6 million has the ninth largest economy in the world (Jaeger, p. 2). Since the beginning of the 21st century the country has been enjoying a well-established economic stability, low inflation, high productivity rates and developing macro-economic infrastructure. Currently, Brazilian economic indexes are gradually improving in their dynamics, though some of them still remain on the average level for Latin American region. In particular, GDP growth in 2006 was hardly over 3% (Estevao). Since the middle of the last century Brazil was expected to develop shortly into Ã¢â¬Å"the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s next economic power. Ã¢â¬ However due to two-decade long economic stagnation and financial crises in the mid-1980s Brazil has lost its positions and fell short of expectations regarding its economic development, especially in comparison with rapidly progressing economies of the countries in Asian region, such as China, Taiwan or South Korea, etc. (Adrogue, Cerisola & Gelos, p. 3). Nevertheless, in the 1990s a series of well-planned governmental policies were implemented and Brazilian economy went through a number of structural economic changes, which allowed achieving certain stability, especially on macro-economic level. Therefore, countryÃ¢â¬â¢s inflation was taken under control, external debt was considerably decreased, and numerous measures directed on reformation of financial infrastructure, liberalization of trade, achieving price stability and stimulating general economic growth were undertaken (Jaeger, p. 5-6). This way the country managed to improve its international image and gain a reputation of Ã¢â¬Å"trustworthyÃ¢â¬ nation again. As a result, since recent times Brazil has been receiving a lot of private investments. Foreign investors are attracted by high return of their funds and relatively low risks. Such significant factors, as good demographic situation in the country, high interest rates, stable political situation and prudent governmental policies regarding overseas trade, created absolutely favorable environment for foreign businessmen, who intend to invest their funds and start their businesses in Brazil. Good investment climate and economic stability are not the only factors determining future rise of Brazilian economy. In addition to that, Brazil is very rich with various natural resources. Those are, first of all, huge territories of arable lands available for cultivation of a great variety of crops. Moreover, there are large mineral and plant resources including iron, copper and even gold, which have not been even properly explored yet. That is why there are great opportunities for different industrial and agricultural companies in Brazil. Undoubtedly, there are some problems which require immediate attention and solution in order to fasten economic development and achieve high levels of social wellbeing. Those include corrupted educational system and problems with human capital, insufficient financial and fiscal systems, poverty and income disparities, etc. Certainly, such reforms are hard to implement within some short period of time, therefore, positive transformations are expected to become effective gradually. Nevertheless, modern Brazil can be called the Ã¢â¬Å"country of the futureÃ¢â¬ with its huge national market, cheap working power, abundance of natural resources, and many other factors determining a large long-term economic potential of the country (Jaeger, p. 2). Great economic stability and openness, steady increase in manufacturing and consumption, establishment of new international trade connections and other fundamentals will definitely contribute greatly to future prosperity and economic power of the country. Works Cited: Estevao, Marcello. Ã¢â¬Å"Brazil Seeks to Unlock Economic Potential. Ã¢â¬ International Monetary Fund. 26 Feb. 2007. 25 Nov. 2007 . Jaeger, Marcus. Brazil: Economic scenarios for the next 15 years. Ed. Maria L. Lanzeni. Deutsche Bank Research. Frankfurt Am Main: Deutsche Bank AG, 2006 Adrogue, Richardo, Martin Cerisola and Gaston Gelos. BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s Long-Term Growth Performance -Trying to Explain the Puzzle. International Monetary Fund, unpublished manuscript, December 2006.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Poetry Writing Courses for International Students Poetry Writing Courses for International Students People usually write poems because they want to capture a moment or certain emotion they have experienced. Poetry employs a different approach to communication with the reader. This genre of literature has its own devices and techniques to convey your experience to the audience. Practice makes perfect, but if you write poems, or at least tried to, you know that prior knowledge of these techniques is extremely helpful. Here is a list of courses that will help you start the journey into poetry, improve your skills as a writer and publish your work. Some of the courses are free and some of them are paid, but all of them are online, and thus, suitable for international students. Ã¢â¬Å"What is poetry?Ã¢â¬ from OpenLearn is a free course, a popular platform for online studies. It is great for beginners as it covers the basics, teaches how to use writing techniques and literary devices. This course is designed for people who wish to start writing poems, but for some reason keep postponing. It can help you realize what stops you from writing, and free your imagination. Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry writingÃ¢â¬ form Gotham Writers is useful for those who cant find their way with words. The course teaches how to make the most powerful impact on the reader, but also addresses the forms of poetry and writing techniques. This course is also held in New York, so you can take it in person if you live near this location, or if you are going to visit the city in time of their workshop. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing poetryÃ¢â¬ from University of Oxford focuses on writing devices and how to use them. If you trust university education more than private courses, than this course might be better for you. After completing it, you will feel more confident in your writing skills, learn different types of verse forms and poetic structures. Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry writing courseÃ¢â¬ from London School of Journalism consists of 8 lessons. It is a complete course that walks you through from the basics to getting published. If you want to find your personal style this one is definitely for you. Ã¢â¬Å"ENGL 310: Modern PoetryÃ¢â¬ is one of the introductory courses from Yale University. It consists of 25 free lectures and an exam. The course is useful for people who would like to get acquainted with authors of modern poetry and find inspiration in their writing. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing and reading poetryÃ¢â¬ , interestingly enough, is yet another poetry writing course from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It has an emphasis on practice of making poetry and analyzing 20th century poetry. This course is more useful for students, who already know everything in theory and want to start practicing. If you want to start writing poems or you do, but feel like something is missing from your work, or you just cant get published for some reason, take up an online course. Fill the gaps in your knowledge or skills. On another note, in an auditorium, you will have to share your progress with a bunch of other students. If you are a beginner and feel intimidated with taking a creative group course, an online programme is a good place to start. Visit our trustworthy writing service to buy student essays online if you need help with writing your academic papers.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Medicinal Plants of the Rainforest Of the 265,000 species of flowering plants that have been identified on this planet, only 0.5% of them have been studied in detail for chemical composition and medicinal value. In fact, modern scientists only know the chemical composition of less than 5% of the flora in the rainforest. However, indigenous peoples who live in the rainforest can identify specific uses for 49-82% of the trees in their local environment. In fact, 75% of the world population still use plants and plant extracts for their medicinal needs. Indigenous people of the rainforest provide priceless resources in the form of knowledge about the potential usefulness of medicinal plants. It can even be argued that the knowledge of tropical plants as medicinal resources is more in danger of extinction that the actual plants themselves. When the Europeans first came to Amazonia, the estimated population of indigenous peoples was 6.8 million, but by the early 1970's the population was estimated at about 500,000. The use of medicinal plants can be traced back to ancient China, India, Greece and Persia. As early as 1552, the Aztecs that were conquered by the Spaniards used medicinal plants as Ã¢â¬Å"peace offeringsÃ¢â¬ to the king of Spain who was on quests to find new medicines and species in the newly conquered land. By the 19th century scientists treated malaria with quinine extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree. In the 1960's scientists discovered that an ingredient in the Madagascar rosy periwinkle could be used to treat some types of childhood leukemia. Today two anti-tumor agents are found in the rosy periwinkle, one of which provides for a 99% chance of remission in lymphocytic leukemia and the other offers a 58% chance of life in remission to sufferers of Hodgkin's Disease. Before 1960, there was only a nineteen percent survival rate of people with HodgkinÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease. There are also many plants that contain chemicals that c... Free Essays on Medicinal Plants Of The Rainforest Free Essays on Medicinal Plants Of The Rainforest Medicinal Plants of the Rainforest Of the 265,000 species of flowering plants that have been identified on this planet, only 0.5% of them have been studied in detail for chemical composition and medicinal value. In fact, modern scientists only know the chemical composition of less than 5% of the flora in the rainforest. However, indigenous peoples who live in the rainforest can identify specific uses for 49-82% of the trees in their local environment. In fact, 75% of the world population still use plants and plant extracts for their medicinal needs. Indigenous people of the rainforest provide priceless resources in the form of knowledge about the potential usefulness of medicinal plants. It can even be argued that the knowledge of tropical plants as medicinal resources is more in danger of extinction that the actual plants themselves. When the Europeans first came to Amazonia, the estimated population of indigenous peoples was 6.8 million, but by the early 1970's the population was estimated at about 500,000. The use of medicinal plants can be traced back to ancient China, India, Greece and Persia. As early as 1552, the Aztecs that were conquered by the Spaniards used medicinal plants as Ã¢â¬Å"peace offeringsÃ¢â¬ to the king of Spain who was on quests to find new medicines and species in the newly conquered land. By the 19th century scientists treated malaria with quinine extracted from the bark of the cinchona tree. In the 1960's scientists discovered that an ingredient in the Madagascar rosy periwinkle could be used to treat some types of childhood leukemia. Today two anti-tumor agents are found in the rosy periwinkle, one of which provides for a 99% chance of remission in lymphocytic leukemia and the other offers a 58% chance of life in remission to sufferers of Hodgkin's Disease. Before 1960, there was only a nineteen percent survival rate of people with HodgkinÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease. There are also many plants that contain chemicals that c...
Monday, November 4, 2019
The Impact of Information Technology on the Society - Research Paper Example Information technology was not as advanced as it is today and communication was also expensive and efficient. A few decades ago a huge revolution in communication and computing occurred which were the markers of information technology advancement. In the last few decades, swift progress in the field of technology mostly in huge internet spread made the technology even more intensive among people. These developments have changed the way many businesses operate such as education, medicine, and commerce. When the human race began to communicate with others, they were proficient in using language and also other important and simpler techniques as in drawings. The era of this sort of technique was known as pre-mechanical and no intricate communication devices were in use. As the time passed, human beings indulged in using papers, and alphabets which improve the communication devices. With the passage of time, this technique changed to the overall development of libraries and books for sto ring information. In the later years, many number systems came into being by making communication easier. The mechanization of technologies of communication made use of analog computers development as in Blaise Pascal, which Pascaline invented. In the electromechanical period, telecommunication was developed. This period was not without its innovation of telephone, radio, and telegraph. The period was taken over by the huge production of personal computers that could easily be used at offices and at homes.Ã ... Contemporary world followed this period which was mainly dominated by digitized computers. The modern developments involve central processing invention units with memory and logic. The personal computers came as benevolence to people (Library and Information Technology Association, 1982).Ã Literature review In 2012, Nasir, Sultan, and Khattak also argued that these developments in the field of information technology have paved the way for human communication expansion. This has transformed the cultures and traditions of various groups of society. Furthermore, human beings have been united by this information technology and world is now a global village. The evolution of these technologies and also rapid development of higher developed ones have been made possible. Media industry has also seen a drastic development due to this information technology. In 2012, Heinz and Hirschheim said that many fields of sciences are now enhanced due to information technology. These developments en riched the many experiences of human nature such as human interactions and business. In 2004, Onwuegbuzie and Qun said that information technology has revolutionized the system of education. These technologies were applied in many areas of education such as libraries and have made the procedures of education much easier. Furthermore, the instructors can give instruction in many areas without having to fear meeting students. Additionally, the internet and devices availability as in personal computers are a blessing for virtual students; in fact they give birth to virtual studies. Another field where information technology has its affects is the area of management sciences. The organizational
Friday, November 1, 2019
What is Confucius' concept of good government and the ideal state - Essay Example It mainly aimed at assisting leaders maintain local order, keep tradition, and maintaining a steady living standard for peasants. Those who adhered to this school got training in loyalty, traditional rituals, and generosity 1(Bell, 2008). In addition, the school taught respect for the old and superiors. Confucius honored the ancient ways of life, which he encouraged his students to master. For example, he urged them to read the Book of Documents as well as the Book of changes. His philosophy included embracing Chinese values, which included proper performance of traditional rituals 1(Bell, 2008). Confucius proposed that proper governance could be established by embracing virtue and benevolence. He emphasized that the leader had to be good; this way, people would follow what is right. Therefore, he taught that leaders should be excellent examples to the subjects to enhance the creating of a true empire. The Confucius concept advanced that all the posts in the government had to be 1based on righteousness and virtue. As a result, the ruled class, seeing their leaders as upright and benevolent, would also become upright. Therefore, this concept states that an ideal state should have leaders whose virtues can be emulated by those they rule. 2(Bell, 2008) In his book, Bell argues that the Confucius concept of good governance and the ideal state has three essential doctrines. The first doctrine of this concept is benevolence, which Confucius regarded as something people have to cultivate in themselves. Enlightened self interest plays a key role in approaching benevolence. For governance to succeed, leaders have to put themselves in the position of those they rule. State leaders should treat other people accordingly. To this concept, benevolence entails doing unto others what one would like them to do to him or herself. Thus, this concept places emphasis on the need for benevolence and treating