Sunday, March 15, 2020
Carding Mill Valley Essays Carding Mill Valley Essay Carding Mill Valley Essay Essay Topic: The Long Valley How and why does the valley width change downstream? 2. How and why does the channel width change downstream? 3. How and why channel cross-section change downstream? 4. How and why does the average velocity change downstream? 5. How and why does the channel gradient change downstream? 6. How and why does the bed-load change downstream? 7. How and why does the human land use of the valley change as the river moves downstream and does this Impact on the river? Introduction Carding mill valley is in Shorebird, England. It is 22. Km northwest of Trochaic; it is part of long mind. The valley in total stretches 2 miles and spans 5 sq miles in total. The long mind is a stretch of hills literally translated from welsh as Long Mountain, they stretch for 7 miles. The valley cuts into the long mind so therefore it is part of the hills. The valley has a few types of vegetation on top of grass such as heather, bracken, bilberry and gorse. There is also an abundance of animals especially sheep and birds, there Is also a disused reservoir which will have a lot of aquatic life. The valley was formed 600 years ago by volcanic activity. The rocks In the hills and valley are 560 million years old. At the top of the valley there is a waterfall that is called tight spout waterfall that is fuelled by mm of rainfall they get each year. The valley is now maintained and looked after by the national trust, which initially took over in 1965 and then completely took over in 1979. In the valley there is now a shop, cafeÃ © and a gabion that is helping prevent the erosion. In the valley you can simply go for a walk or partake in some more exciting activities such as hang gliders, there is also a tearoom with great views and surroundings. [pick] Climate graph We can see from my climate graph that there are general trends such as mild temperatures In autumn Ana spring out really quilt cola temperatures In ten winter and very warm temperatures in the summer, the temperature go from a low of 2 degrees in December to a high of 16 in July. Yet again there are trends in the amount of rainfall, firstly there is rain all year round but the heaviest is found in November with 99 mm of rain and the low is found in July with 29 mm of rain. Carding mill alley is found in a temperate climate, which is the same as the whole of the United Kingdom, this means there are no extremes of rainfall or temperatures. Sketch Map Methodology Measurements we took 1) Valley width. 2) Channel width. 3) Channel depth. 4) Gradient. 5) Velocity. ) Bed load (longest axis and shape) 1) Valley width We use this tape measure to measure how wide the valley was. We measured from where there was an incline in height on one side to the same on the other. 1) Channel width We use the tape measure again to measure how wide the channel of water was. We simply measured from one side of the channel to the other. 3) Channel depth When we measured the channel depth we put a tape measure across the channel and then we put a meter ruler into the water and measured how deep the water is in CM. We did this every 25 CM. ) Gradient 10 measure ten gradient we put ranging poles Into ten ground or rollover at distances of 10 meters apart we used 3 poles in total. We then lined up the sights of the clinometers up with the two second red stripes on two of the poles as shown above. 5) Velocity To measure the velocity of the river we place a cork in the river and timed how long it kook for it to travel 10 meters. To measure the bed load we selected 6 rocks from the bed of the river from all 6 sites and measured the longest part of the rock, this will be its length. Then we looked at the shape of the rock and compared it to our guideline to determine whether it was very angular, angular, sub-angular, sub-rounded, rounded or well rounded. Results 1. Valley Width 2. Channel width 3. Channel Depth, Cross-section Profiles 4. Gradient 5. Velocity 6. Bed Load Longest Axis 7. Bed load shape Types of erosion Abrasion/corrosion Rocks that are carried in the river grind and erode the riverside and bed. Some of the rock at the sides and bed of the channel are washed away. This type of erosion widens the channel through lateral erosion and deepens the channel by vertical erosion. Hydraulic action Water traveling at a high speed may enter the line of weakness of rock when it hit against these rocks at the side of the channel. The force may cause the rock to break Ana ten Drone pieces AT rock are swept away Attrition When material in the water collides with one another, they break and become smaller particles. These particles become smoother and rounded. Solution/ Corrosion The river water may also dissolve the minerals in the rock and carry them down the river. Limestone may be dissolved quickly in the river water, especially when there is high concentration. Analysis of data Valley width We can see in my graph that as we move down stream the valley widens at a slow rate to begin with but it get more rapid the further we go down the valley. I can show this by using my results as I said the valley starts off at a slow rate of widening of 4. Mm to 6. Mm and again up to mm so this clearly is a gradual increase. Whereas it jumps to measurements of 1 5. Mm to 29. M and then to mm, this shows the rapid increase. This is an increase of 34. 73% from the top of the valley to the bottom; this is taken from a minimum measurement of 4. Mm and a maximum measurement of mm. Types of erosion involved in this are abrasion/corrosion, which is Rocks that are carried in the river grind and erode the riverside and bed. Some of the rock at the sides and bed of the channel are washed away. This type of erosion widens the channel through lateral erosion and deepens the channel by vertical erosion. Also Hydraulic action is an affect where water traveling at a hig h speed may enter the line f weakness of rock when it hit against these rocks at the side of the channel. The force may cause the rock to break and the broken pieces of rock are swept away. These causes get stronger as we move down the river as they pick up speed and extra sediment and rocks to cause the erosion. The most important type is abrasion as it is the most destructive erosion and as for the time of year that it is most prolific is winter as the volume of water coming down the river is greater so the amount of rock it can carry increases. The valley widens as the channel widens hence the types of erosion mentioned. Channel width We can pick out from the individual graph and the combined graph that the channel width increases as we move down stream. However there is an anomaly in these results, which could have many explanations such as harder rock or the river, slows at this point. The widths on the whole increases by nearly triple its original width. As for erosion it will have the same types as valley width as the channel width dictates the valley width. So there will be hydraulic action, corrosion and abrasion at work. The patterns Tanat are clear on ten graph all T t a general pattern AT ten Turner down alley you get the wider the valley and the channel gets. Channel depth As we look at my channel cross-sections it tells us clearly that as we move down stream the channel widens and with it gets deeper, this is this because of the types of erosion happening which are; abrasion/corrosion, attrition, hydraulic action and corrosion. It goes from a minimum depth of CACM to a maximum depth of CACM so thats an increase of 2 fifths. I have found one anomaly in my results of site one which is the deepest but that could be because of the amount of water hitting it from the plunge pool little further up. Gradient The gradient is steeper at the top near the source as it is coming down out of the valley but as you go further down stream its gets flatter as we come down out of the hills and down to the bottom of Body hill. It changes from a high of 12 too low of 2 this is a decrease of 2/3rd. An anomaly may be that there is no decrease between site 5 and 6 so there is only the force of upstream pushing the water through. There are a few types of erosion causing the change in gradient as corrosion and abrasion forcing the land to recede downwards, this changes the shape of the valley I ways such as the valley itself gets deeper and in some places causing mini waterfalls as there may be harder rock that is not eroded so easily. Deposition occurs in quantities and this affects the gradient, as it will flatten it out, as there is new bed load all the time. [pick] In the lower valley there is more lateral erosion than vertical erosion as there is not so much force pushing down where the waterfall is pushing down rather than the river pushing forward. Velocity As we move from site 1 to site 6 we see that the velocity has ups and downs there is no definite pattern between the results as they start at 1. 6 and then drop suddenly to 0. 96 but then they steadily go up so this result may be an anomaly from rock on the bottom that the cork got stuck on or maybe a small plunge pool that it got stuck in but to look at the results do not look like they have a definite pattern. But from the lowest result to the highest result there is an increase of almost double the speed. The velocity is going to change as near the plunge pool where the velocity is going to be high the amount of angular rocks will slow it and with the small channel width and the large wetted area will cause more friction and slow the cork and velocity own. Load longest axles Ana load snaps As for the bed load shape at the top of the stream the rocks angular and sub angular, as they havent had time to get eroded and smoothed over yet, as for the bed load length it starts off at the top as a maximum of 12 CM and then down to the bottom where the maximum length is 7. 6 so that is an increase of about h, so at the bottom of the valley the rocks start to become more rounded and sub rounded. So in summary the further you go down they valley the smaller and more rounded they are but up the top they are longer and more angular. In my results there are no anomaly to be found for the bed load shape but as for the bed load length there are some from site 3 and site 5 where they are much smaller than expected this could be because they got trapped in that position and eroded in that place instead of moving down stream and getting eroded on the way. The bed load shape will defiantly change constantly as the new angular rock is supplied at the top from it falling from the weathered valley sides, but further down stream the sediment has been eroded in transportation by attrition, corrosion and abrasion, which will make them smaller and more rounded. Human analysis of carding mill valley Man has influenced this area and the river in many ways, which will affect the state and the activity of the river. Firstly the excellent walking areas around draw hikers to the area this causes paths and walkways around the area. This will affect the valley as they put down tablets of stone which are impermeable to water cannot get into the soil and make it to the river via through flow this will increase surface run-off which will keep water on top of the ground and increase the chance of flooding, however they space to slabs a little apart and do not cement them down so there fore he water can still enter the earth. On the upland there is beautiful heather which could become ruined by people taking cuttings or dropping litter which affects the wildlife as the heather may be their home and they may try to eat the litter or dropped scraps, this may in turn make them dependent on humans which makes them less wild and move away from their inherited lives but this can be resolved simply by putting fines on litter or putting more bins around the site. Hand gliders love it there to as it is high and beautiful but Para gliders will cause noise and air pollution. Tourist activity has affected it by laying concrete and pavements which are impermeable increasing surface run-off and increasing yet again the possibility of flooding and in turn lowering the amount of water making it to the river and being taken away but they have put a man made drainage system in to combat this problem, they have also put hard rock barriers up to stop its natural course and dictating where it goes however the have put gabion up to stop the river destroying the landscape by eroding the valley too far and causing landslides. The tourist attraction and the education centre put together will increase the amount of visitors sleeve wanly all affects ten ruler, Decease tense wall De many people wall De walking up and down the valley all the time which will cause erosion on the grass and soft land. The hiking routes are well marked but the walkers may well go off track and cause damage on unmarked land where it needs to be preserved. The main thing that makes the place so popular to humans apart from the spectacular views, easily accessible and lots of wildlife is that its free so therefore at least 250,000 people visit the site each year so that will cause a lot of pollution and erosion, this ill also cause more conversationalist which means more tarmac and impermeable surface and more land covered which decreases interception which helps against floods. As the valley has at least mm of rain per year which is a good amount. The valley was made by volcanic activity 600 million years ago so this draws more people especially as it has some of the oldest rock formations in existence. The whole valley is covered in heather, bilberry, bracken and gorse which all helps with interception, transpiration and stem flow but as this gets cut back to build tourist attractions it will increase the amount of water going into the river causing increased chance off extreme flooding. pick] This diagram shows the system that happens to a place that has had nothing done to it in terms of tourist activity, Housing and human activity at all but when humans do step in the amount of over land flow, surface storage and soil infiltration decreases dramatically so therefore the amount of drainage basin output will be way too low so as a result there will be a massive increased threat of flooding. So basically there has been no building to increase interception and there is o tarmac to increase the surface runoff. Conclusion 1) The valley width changed down stream due to the given types of erosion such as hydraulic action, corrosion, abrasion and attrition. It does this because erosion cuts into the sides and bed of the stream and therefore it gets wider and deeper. The channel does this, as that is what causes the erosion. ) The channel width changed in ways of wider and deeper from erosion that grinds into the side of the channel so the further down the stream the wider it gets and the same happens to the depth but instead of lateral erosion it goes vertically. ) The cross-section changes as you go down the stream in ways of lateral and vertical erosion because of all types of erosion. The depth is always deeper towards the top as the water is coming down out of the hills so it is coming vertically but the further down it begins to flatten out so therefore it starts to get w ider. ) The velocity is greater at the top because the gradient up the top is greater than down the bottom so its obvious that as the gradient flattens out the velocity gets slower. 5) The gradient changes due to the direction of erosion so at the source it is vertical erosion due to the plunge pool but as you go down the erosion turns into lateral erosion so odometer ten gradient neatens out. 6) The bed load starts at the top with weathered rock falling from the valley. It is angular when it falls in and its rather large also. As the rock travels down the stream it gets eroded from corrosion, abrasion and attrition. 7) The human impact affects the river in ways such as dictating the course of the river and also it will not get any through flow water as the ground is covered with concrete and tarmac. Evaluation Large wetted area Angular rocks Small plunge pools
Friday, February 28, 2020
Evaluate feyerabend's argument that society needs to be defended against science. to what extent does science deserve the specia - Essay Example In these two books, he expresses and defends his ideas on the nature of scientific methods, concluding that there are no ground rules on governing scientific methods. He opposed the idea of having a single rigid scientific process to which all scientific research is carried out with the argument that this would make science predictable thus denying it the opportunity to evolve (Feyerabend 2000). In this study, Feyerabend shows that new findings in science, on which theories are later founded, have enormous influence from past events, theoriesand facts. Scientists researching in a new area of study do not only apply old scientific methods in fresh observations but they also observe the field under study under the mental influence of old theories and already existing facts. To this effect, much of their findings will be subjected towards what they already know in this field, such that their new work appears to marchnew observations to old facts and while improving them to come up with new theories. This process shows high levels of falsification in science, where scientists will do anything to defend their theories and ensure that they fit in with significant facts to avoid dismissal (Feyerabend 2000).With these and other arguments, Feyerabend uses philosophical facts and methods to show reasons why the society should be defended from science. This paper evaluates FeyerabendÃ¢â¬â¢s argument that the society should be protected from science, and the degree to which science warrant the special epistemic status it enjoys. The paper achieves its aim by looking at science and society, and then narrows down to the effect of science on eduation and religion. Through this, this essay will cover the need of protecting the society from science and the significance of science in such areas, which warrant its use in them. Science and Society- Scientific Methods Feyerabend developed an anarchistic philosophy of science. Anarchism is a political philosophy in which all forms of state authority are viewed as undesirable and unnecessary. Anarchists advocate for a free society that is based on voluntary participation in activities, and freedom of association between individuals and groups. Anarchism involves opposing the influence of authority and hierarchies that affect human interaction within a society within a state. These societies advocate for a society with no hierarchies and have no influence from state institutions. Feyerand advocated for separation of the state from science in the same manner that religion is detached from the state in the modern world (Feyerabend 2000). He envisioned a society where all traditions have equivalent treatment with equal privileges in accessing attention and central power. The period of the late 90Ã¢â¬â¢s was when science was honourable and viewed as a great privilege. Scientific facts were treated with great reverence to the point where individuals sacrifices their traditional and cultural believes Feyerand thou ght that too much credit was given to science in a situation where the society was not fully equipped with enough information and facts on the true nature of science. The society was therefore, exposed to science without proper information on the traditions, theories and functionalities of science. This was done since it was a new
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Initial personal goals and explain how you achieved them throughout the semester.( second part need as jazz dance perforner in dance class) - Essay Example They will boost my performance quality and meet the demand of the audience in entertainment or competitive platform. The goals would also serve to help me achieve my potential in entertainment industry. The goals will help me adhere to the professional codes of conduct and dressing in this dance style, remain physically fit and sustain mental alertness that is influential in attaining pattern of body movement during performance. I have had significant improvement in my endeavor through increased physical fitness practice and dance moves. I have gained significant fitness and mastered dance moves with unique acrobatic techniques that accomplish my efficiency. However, all this was not without challenges. I faced significant huddles in reconciling dance moves with my weight and height. It also took me time to understand the emphasis of my trainer on dress code and consistent physical exercise due to fatigue. Despite such obstacles, I could not believe that I have potential in acrobatic moves that blends well with Jazz dance. I have gained much inspiration through increased mental alertness, physical fitness and personal discipline. This has taught me to remain focused on set goals but also reminded me to incorporate time in regard to set goals. My next challenge would be to overcome fear of the crowd and realize the goal of confidence during
Friday, January 31, 2020
Health and Social Care Management Essay Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933), defined management as the art of getting things done through people. This may seem a very narrow angle for some, however, the philosophical concept of management, relies on results being obtained through people. The nature and role of managers has been an emerging concept since the early 19th century, often linked toÃ administration and being the middle ground in organisations allowing to filter objectives to employees and vice versa, filtering employees needs to senior staff within the organisation. In my view management is a set of hierarchy working to achieve a common objective. As a Patient Advise Liaison Service (PALS) and Stakeholder Engagement and Involvement Manger, my role is predominantly to manage the customer service role for the Care Trust. Up until recently the Care trust was specialist in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities. The Trust is now at the stage of applying to become a member of Foundation Trust Status, which involves recruiting members to help shape the future of the organisation (BDCT, 2013) My role can be viewed in favour of Mintzbergs headings: Liaison, Monitor, disseminator and spokesperson. I am the Liaison between the organisation and the team, and also the wider service users. I monitor the teams performance, activities and disseminate information from the organisation to many third sector organisations, such as BAMHAG and ACAS, both of which are advocacy services for Mental Health service users As cited in Mullins (2010) by Crainer, management is making things happen. My role can also fit in with Crainers model as I am heavily involved in making sure that the team can meet objectives. The difficulty with the statement of making things happen is dependent upon each individuals motivation and their individual circumstances. I feel that as an individual I am in the infancy stages of my career and have motivation with clear defined, SMART, goals (Mullins, 2010). The managers role and activities have a different number of models and theories which are used to explain what a manager does, or should do. Some of these are explained by the following: Fayols model looks at: Planning, organising, command, co-ordinate and control. My management role does have a certain element of Fayols model, but I found this view to be quite restricted, my role involves a lot of motivation, or the fact that is how I manage. Druckers model looks at settings objectives, organising, motivating and communicating. I feel that this is the best fit for my style and role. The limitation of this model is that it has a less authoritarian approach to it, and as I have discovered in my experiences can lead to the team that is being managed almost abusing a level of candour. Stewart describes the management role as to say the activities and role dependant on demands, constraints, and choices. Again, this can also fit in with my role and management style but is demanding on some of the authority that is needed. The management style as described by Blake and Moulton in their grid looks at manager effectiveness versus efficiency. These are what I believe to be key qualities, attributes and skills of a successful manager. There is however room for a change in style dependant on circumstances. My role is to manage the Patient Advice and Liaison Service for the Trust to ensure the service is visible and accessible to patients, their families and carers through analysis of contact information and evaluation of experience. To develop procedures to ensure effectiveness of core business of service. The implementation of a telephone rota and advertised business hours has been an issue. Service users that are known to the team through historical working practices often end up having adhoc meetings in the office. This is both disruptive to other staff and can also be deemed as unprofessional. However, the particular service users have a high level of dependency on the PALS officers. My initial reaction to this as a manager was that we needed to have a timetable for appointment, so that PALs officers are not severing a link with the service users but for an element of empowering o take place, as explained by Banduras self -efficacy service. If an individual is told they cannot look after themselves, eventually they believe that. However using empowerment can allow for service users to identify their own strengths. As a manager the challenge I face is that PALS officers haveÃ different levels of motivation and different triggers for motivation. Mullins 2010 defines motivation as why people behave in a certain way, why people do what they do. This is explained further to say that the direction and persistence of action. It is concerned when people choose a particular course of action in preference to others, and why they continue with a chosen action, often over a long period of time and in the face of difficulties and problems. This is true of both in a positive and negative light. An example form the team that I manage is that PALS officers are often on the in-patient wards to promote the service of PALS and to ask those people that would otherwise not be able to raise a concern. My critique of this situation was that a service can only be promoted to a certain level, otherwise it can be over promoted and this is where we find the leaflets that are handed out, just thrown about. My view is that each interaction should make a difference to the PALS officers. They should be able to understand that unless they found a new way of working, they are offering a counselling service, for which they are not qualified to do or paid to do. Again the discussion around empowerment was quite useful in highlighting to PALS officers that they are not there to nanny service users. I provide day to day management for PALS staff including provision of formal supervision; there is also need to provide ad hoc supervision, this may be in order to support staff in dealing with sensitive, upsetting, distressed cases / clients. I also receive and deal with complex cases or where cases require escalation from offices; dealing with sensitive, highly emotive issues and dealing with clients who may be extremely upset and / or distressed. My role is also that of a Stakeholder engagement and involvement manager, which has a very corporate approach. I am responsible for forging relationships with both internal and external stakeholders. As discussed, the roles of PALS manager and stakeholder engagement and involvement manager does occasionally cause conflict, they are not natural roles that would come together. My understanding is that my predecessor had an interest in this area and so the role became theirs, and as such has been handed over. Another challenge to the above is that my role is job-shared. My co-colleague also works to manage PALS and stakeholder engagement. The conflict in that situation is that this individual is also a PALS officers, this means balancing three work roles out of which the Since the Mid Staffordshire Enquiry (2012) a huge push has been taking place to ensure processes and procedures are in place for service users/patients, carers and communities to have their say. The Francis Report (2013) highlights 290 key recommendations for organisations providing care. As part of my role I had to identify the key areas for development which are most relevant to the PALS officers and stakeholder roles. Prior to my joining of the team, an internal consultation was underway and when I joined the deadline for the consultation period was looming, however, I was able to be a spokesperson for the team ( Mintzberg) by keeping up to date with PALS policy and guidance and develop local procedures for the Trust in relation to PALS. This had to be robust process which could iron out some of the concerns I also work with the Head of Involvement and Equality to develop the PALS service to ensure the service meets requirements for the transformation agenda. At the moment I do this by having monthly meetings and adhoc regular contact. Again fitting in with Maslows hierarchy of needs I need this regular contact to maintain and improve my effectiveness as a manager. One of the challenges that I face is to maintain an overview of the system used to record PALS cases. This is to ensure information related to quality of services including equality data and patient experiences are recorded and effectively used across the organisation. I also develop local and Trust wide reporting mechanisms to do this. The challenge is the operational side of getting staff to actually record. I will need to consider the barriers to this during the one to one supervision sessions. The involvement function of my role is quite wide but a lot of the work involved looks at developing systems using IT based programmes to support the equality and involvement agendas including development of effectiveÃ stakeholder engagement mechanisms to record stakeholders and involvement activities. I also keep up to date with patient experience guidance and to work alongside the Patient Involvement and Experience Manager by ensuring that PALS contacts are recorded accurately and are reported in line with patient experience indicators and commissioning requirements. The NHS has undergone a huge change in the direction of strategies and financial decisions that are made. (DOH, 2013) The failure of previous managing organisations such as the Primary Care Trust, has meant that a lot of the workload from there PCT has now moved over to the Care Trust. The experience of patients is very important in this process as it highlights that poor management can leave patients to have poor experience. (Patients Association, 2013) I MANAGE A TEAM, BUT ALSO HAVE TO WORK AS PART OF A TEAM. MY MAIN ROLE IS THE LEARNING CURVE FOR MYSELF AND TO OBTAIN THE LOCAL KNOWLEDGE HELD BY THE PALS OFFICERS. I DELIVER REGULAR TEAM BRIEFING SESSIONS, SHARE INFORMATION, SKILLS AND EXPERIENCES WITH COLLEAGUES LISTEN AND ARE OPEN TO THE VIEWS OF OTHERS. I ACTIVELY WORK TO DEVELOP AND MAINTAIN POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH PEOPLE AT ALL LEVELS. BY DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING CONSTRUCTIVE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS WITH LOCAL SERVICE USER, CARER AND COMMUNITY LED ORGANISATIONS. (MULLINS, 2010) An effective team, as stated by Mullins and other literature surrounding management, is a group of people that work together to achieve outcomes. This is a multidisciplinary approach, using a matrix style of working. I am comfortable with this description as I also feel that a team is a group of individuals that work together to use skills and expertise and team working to complete tasks assigned to the group. The defined role of a team looks at defined roles, skills and expertise. An important part of the team is to maintain regular contact, collaboration, co-ordination. These regular and frequent interactions give the team a more defined purpose. I also feel that a team needs skills and knowledge to carry out capability. The challenges that I face in my role are that the role is of an evolving nature with and increased demand and support should be given by other colleagues in a matrix style of working. However, due to the lack of clarity from senior management and the fact that the job description is very new can lead to an impact on day to day management of the PALS team. Another significant challenge is to performance manage the PALS team. The team has been working together for approximately 8 years, with some of the newer members joining around 4 years ago. This has led to a culture of working to our way. The concern with this approach to team working is that it may not necessarily meet the objectives of the organisation. In the scenario of the PALS team we constantly seem to cover ground rules and not be able to get past that, this can be seen as a level of non- compliance. As a manager my role is to steer the team to meet the teams objectives, but this can be difficult due to the complex dynamics and individual personalities. To combat this I arranged individual sessions with staff to generate discussion around what each member of staff feels that they have done well, what can they do better and what would help them to get to that stage. The challenge that I face with the team during this period of consultation is to maintain a positive working environment and culture which actively improves the performance of the department and teams within it in relation to involvement, patient experience and equality. This id due to the motivation levels within the team. As cited in Mullins 2010, Team working is no more than a fashionable term used by management to give workers an exaggerated feeling of importance my view on this is that team working has to be used in the right context. There are times as a manager where you can be led by your team however, overall the manager has to set the scene and highlight the core areas for team working and independent work. My role in terms of the day to day management of PALS Team including objective setting for individuals and team; allocating work to staff, completing monthly sickness returns. I ensure PALS staff are up to date in terms of all mandatory and required training and development is up to dateÃ at all times. It is imperative to my role to identify and arrange appropriate training and development for PALS staff, via the appraisal and KSF route, to ensure successful delivery of business and to keep staff motivated and engaged in their roles. This is also as described by Druckers management model, which asks the questions of what do managers do? The managers role according to Drucker: Sets objectives. The manager sets goals for the group, and decides what work needs to be done to meet those goals.I engage in this process by using supervision and team meetings, to set objectives but also to understand that the objectives are clear and clarified 2) Organizes. The manager divides the work into manageable activities, and selects people to accomplish the tasks that need to be done. I am in a job share situation, where my colleague is also a part time PALS officer. This has meant that I have had to revise the workload, so that both my skills and management tasks required are delegated appropriately between us and also to staff within the team that have the right skills. The challenge that I face in this situation is that I do not have a PALS background; however, it is important for me to be objective and put simple plans in place to have the team working effectively. I aim to pick up a lot of these conversations during the supervisions that I have with staff. 3) Motivates and communicates. The manager creates a team out of his people, through decisions on pay, placement, promotion, and through his communications with the team. Drucker also referred to this as the integrating function of the manager. My main style of working and management is to use motivation as a contributing factor, by looking at the motivators and demotivates and allowing staff to make their own decisions, using coaching and facilitation. Once aims and objectives are agreed, this allows me to measure the progress during meetings and one to ones 4) Measures. The manager establishes appropriate targets and yardsticks, and analyzes, appraises and interprets performance. This goes hand in hand withÃ motivation, my main role is to measure the outcomes and also to measure underperformance. I aim to try and do this in a facilitating manner and not punitive. My own experiences of being managed in a punitive manner led me to completely switch off. I believe that the right skills and appreciation is at the heart of trying to get a team or individuals to work together. By using reflective practice I can also measure the performance of the team. I recently asked for team to bring figures of complaints/ concerns and issues to team meetings, so that we can be measurable and auditable. 5) Develops people. With the rise of the knowledge worker, this task has taken on added importance. In a knowledge economy, people are the companys most important asset, and it is up to the manager to develop that asset. During the one to one sessions, I have designed a template to ask staff what works well, how we can do it better, looking at ways of improving stakeholder work, raise the empowerment level of individuals to take on responsibilities once involved, i.e. chair meetings etc. Managers born or made, Mullins states a combination of both, my roles both professionally and personally have evolved through needs (Maslows Hierarchy of Needs). The need to bring a substantial income into our family home coupled with the determination of having a professional post. I also feel that as described above I am working using Druckers model for my personal development. One of the main aspects being that I am constantly setting measurable targets for myself and constantly reviewing progress and working to timescales. One of the constant reminders that I have to keep addressing in my role as a manager is that motivation is not linked to ability. As Mullins points that an individual can be motivated but not have the right skill set or resources to carry out their ability. This is quite fundamental to bear in mind as often motivation and ability can be seen as the same, in my view they are co-dependant but need to be addressed individually. Motivation means doing the best of ability, understanding what you can cope with and enjoy. Motivation is possibly the best way of doing something,Ã taking into account individual characteristics and drivers. What motivates one individual may not motivate another (Mullins 2010) The definition of motivation is to keep the momentum going, having the drive to achieve objectives, achieving and keeping a check on self-motivation. Motivation is linked to rewards which are individual to different people. Mullins (2010) states motivation is why people behave in a certain way, why people do what they do, the direction and persistence of it is concerned. Having a sense of achievement is important to all; Organisations are now buying into the fact that staff needs to be kept motivated and engaged. As a result of Staff surveys, (BDCT 2012) organisational aims as well as individual aims are driven by certain motivating factors. These as discussed previously are dependent on individual circumstances. In a team of staff the motivation will be at different levels as people are at different points in life. A lack of motivation has the effect of having a destabilised work environment and an impact on staff morale. Motivation is not performance. Performance = motivation and ability levels (UoB 2013) this phrase sums up for me what motivation means as a manager Within motivation there are different theories. Buchanan and Huczynskis theory on goals looks at main motives for our behaviour, wealth status and power trigger. Our behaviour towards attainment is encapsulated as the Content theory. Mullins 2010 looks at content theories as the drive and need of motivation. Decisions: why do we choose to pursue certain goals is termed process theory, the focus is on how choices are made with respect to goals. Job enrichment theory looks at influence and how can we motivate you to work harder. According to Maslows Hierarchy of needs (Buchanan and Huczysnki) an individual, team or manager has the following needs: 1, physiological needs 2, safety needs 3, social needs 4, ego needs 5, self-actualisation Maslow states that the lower needs have to be satisfied first. My role as PALS Manager came as a result of national changes within the NHS. My previous role was in commissioning and due to move over to the Commissioning Board, however due to geographical challenges; I applied for a local job so that it could fit in with my need of being a carer to my family. In my role as Stakeholder Manager, I collaborate and facilitate corporate events, raise service user and carer profile both inward facing across the organisation and outward facing. The Care Trust has made a huge effort to recognize and reference to the Francis Report, patient experience is at the heart of patient care. As stakeholder manager I am constantly reviewing, what does this mean? To take a proactive approach I take the comments from the board to team meetings to raise awareness of issues and concerns that have a potential to take place, based on Mid Staffs Enquiry (Francis Report, 2013) and vice versa from stakeholder groups back to team meetings. It is critical in my role is to keep a balanced view between the organization and the stakeholders. I am able to agree with the rhetoric assumption of we have been here before in terms of making service better for people , but I believe that the catalyst for change is always evolving and by using reflective practice I am able to highlight the positive changes that have taken place. An example of this is that carers are invited to Board meetings to share their experiences so that the senior management has some idea of the situation at grassroots level. Historically this was not taking place, however due to the feedback received regarding involvement activities from service users and carers, the Trust Board invite Service users and carers onÃ a regularly basis. This allows service users to be an advocate for others but also with regular contact to become almost semi-professional and understand some of the concerns faced by large organisations. The history of service user movement groups is well documented (Everett 1994, Campbell 1996, Wallcraft J, Bryant M 2003) and awareness of this literature enables an understanding to develop of the gigantic steps that have been made in the area of user involvement. The past quarter of a century has witnessed a dramatic change in the way that those using mental health services are perceived, represented and valued, not least as contributors towards their own care as opposed to purely receivers of it. The role of service users in the 2007 mental health service is far removed from the role they played just decades previously (Campbell 2005) and the increasingly used term experts by experience highlights the value placed on service user contribution in all aspects of their care planning. This patient expertise is also fundamental to service user involvement, which not only takes many forms, but occurs on many varying levels. Involvement ranges from the macro level of service planning and evaluation through to involvement at the micro level of service user participation and decision making regarding their own care (Braye 2000). Recognised by the DoH (Department of Health, 2001b) in their Expert Patient document. In my role of team management I am faced with conflicting demands upon my time and within the members of staff. Conflict resolution has become an important part of the managers role, the questions can be asked as to why there can be conflict. One of the reasons that I have uncovered during my research is that individuals can make organisational objectives, become personal objectives, this may not be fitting to everyone, due to individual circumstances. Job purpose and job crafting is linked to my personal beliefs and motivation theory. There are two factors that motivate people in their jobs. These two factors are: Hygiene factors affecting job dissatisfaction are qualities of supervision, pay, company, policies, physical working conditions, relations with others, and job security. Motivator factors affects motivation are promotional opportunities, opportunities for personal growth, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. Herzberg argued that Hygiene factors do not contributes towards higher performance instead they are for prevention of dissatisfaction in jobs. True motivators are impacting motivation and hence organisational performance. In my view hygiene factors are not contributors to motivation is not entirely true. Based on individual factors like responsibility, economic situation, opportunities available, these factors may act as motivators to work. In evaluating the effectiveness of my role as a manager, I am not able to constructively measure my performance in this role as it too early to measure, however, in other areas of my life and on requesting regular feedback from my peers and previous colleagues, I would say that I am an effective manager in terms of motivation, objective setting and team working. I am able to synthesise and analyse my own development to better inform myself and the team that I manage. This role in particular is a short term contract and because of this I feel that my delivery of results is paramount to my reputation as an effective manager. Some of the challenges that I have faced include the spontaneous nature of the team. The embedded dynamics means that it was difficult for staff in overcoming the initial authority and assertiveness of my role. Staff were working to their own demands; they were working hard and trying to give all they can in their roles but not working as effectively as they possibly could. I detected certain levels of non-compliance and lack of respect towards me as a manager from colleague and staff. This may be due to the fact that they consider themselves to be local experts in their respectiveÃ roles. This became an apparent weakness; due to unclear nature of my role and lack of management support this had a knock on effect in my management role. Staff felt that because I was unclear they could also have become complacent in their roles and resisting much required change. I gained support from my manager to facilitate those discussions with my job-share and focussed on the need to work more effectively and efficiently. Following on from the Francis Report, the Trust have decided to conduct an external consultation of the department, this will have an impact on the PALS team, both positively and negatively. Positively the recognition and the importance of service user involvement in mental health care are possibly at a higher level now than it ever has been. The Care Trust was up until a couple of years ago a mental health and learning disabilities, specialist trust. Due to the many changes taking place in the NHS this has now changed and the Care Trust has taken on other responsibilities, the challenge that I am facing in my role is that the service users and carers are mostly from the mental health background, therefore the diversity of involvement from a wide range is restricted, however, this is critical to my role and to the wider role of the organisation. Personal development plan An analysis of my personal development plan will allow me to face some challenges constructively. One of the main concerns is that I have no clear definition of role and therefore unable to set objectives for my team. I aim to seek clarification from my manager and also from the organisation in terms of what the PALS team should be doing, especially in light of the Francis Report. I will be arranging staff supervision sessions and also identifying key areas for development of staff. Regular feedback and appraisals will help in setting the teams objectives. The workload will be reviewed and I will be reviewing time on activities so that a rota can be in place for manning the office and the telephones. I will be able to manage conflict regarding the workload, once the discussions around caseload management have taken place. This will allow cases to be appropriately handled and in a timely manner. References Blake, R. R. and Mouton, J. S. The Managerial Grid III, Gulf Publishing Company (1985) Buchanan, D. and Huczynski, A. Organizational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, Third edition, Prentice Hall (1997) Department of Health, DoH, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/recognised-valued-and-supported-next-steps-for-the-carers-strategy accessed June 2013. Drucker, P. F. The Practice of Management, Heinemann Professional (1989) Everett 1994, Campbell 1996, Wallcraft J, Bryant M 2003 Fayol, H. General and Industrial Management, Pitman (1949). Francis Report and Mid Staffs enquiry: http://www.midstaffsinquiry.com/pressrelease.html accessed June 2013. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. and Snyderman, B. B. The Motivation to Work, Second edition, Chapman and Hall (1959). Maslow, A. H. A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review, 50, July 1943, pp. 370-96 and Maslow, A. H. Motivation and Personality, Third edition, Patients Association, http://www.patients-association.com/ accessed June 2013. Peters, G. Creating the Modern Organization, in Crainer, S. and Dearlove, D. (eds) Financial Times Handbook of Management, Second edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall (2001), Mullins (2010) Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Parker_Follett, accessed June 2013. Mintzberg, H. The Structuring of Organizations, Prentice-Hall (1979). Stewart, R. The Reality of Management, Third edition, Butterworth Heinemann (1999) WriteWork contributors. Management, Partnership and User Involvement in Health and Social Care WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 05 June, 2007. Web. 02 Jun. 2013.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Portrait of a Victim: Toni MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s The Bluest Eye Ã Ã The Bluest Eye (1970) is the novel that launched Toni Morrison into the spotlight as a talented African-American writer and social critic. Morrison herself says Ã¢â¬Å"It would be a mistake to assume that writers are disconnected from social issuesÃ¢â¬ (Leflore). Because Morrison is more willing than most authors to discuss meaning in her books, a genetic approach is very relevant. To be truly effective, though, the genetic approach must be combined with a formal approach. The formal approach allows the unpacking of the rich language, imagery, and metaphors of MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s writing, and the genetic places it in the larger context of her social consciousness. Ã In The Bluest Eye, MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s uses her critical eye to reveal to the reader the evil that is caused by a society that is indoctrinated by the inherent goodness and beauty of whiteness and the ugliness of blackness. In an interview with Milwaukee Journal staff writer Fannie Leflore, Morrison said that she Ã¢â¬Å"confronted and critiqued the devastation of racial imagesÃ¢â¬ in The Bluest Eye. Ã The narrative structure of The Bluest Eye is important in revealing just how pervasive and destructive the Ã¢â¬Å"racializationÃ¢â¬ (MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s term for the racism that is a part of every personÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization) is (Leflore). Morrison is particularly concerned about the narration in her novels. She says, Ã¢â¬Å"People crave narration . . . ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way they learn thingsÃ¢â¬ (Bakerman 58). Narration in The Bluest Eye comes from several sources. Much of the narration comes from Claudia MacTeer as a nine year old child, but Morrison also gives the reader the benefit of Claudia reflecting on the story as an adult, some first person narration from PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, and narration by Morrison herself as an omniscient narrator. Morrison says, Ã¢â¬Å"First I wrote it [the section in The Bluest Eye about PecolaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother] out as an Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ story, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t work . . . Then I wrote it out as a Ã¢â¬ËsheÃ¢â¬â¢ story, and that did nÃ¢â¬â¢t work . . . It was me, the author, sort of omnipotent, talkingÃ¢â¬ (Bakerman 59). Morrison intentionally kept Pecola from any first person narration of the story. Morrison wanted to Ã¢â¬Å"try to show a little girl as a total and complete victim of whatever was around her,Ã¢â¬ and she needed the distance and innocence of ClaudiaÃ¢â¬â¢s narration to do that (Stepto 479).
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Fruit beverages in India have come a long way since their first forms to find their permanent place in Indian households. Today you will find yourself bewildered with the choices available if you wish to drink a fruit beverage. Innumerable and eclectic flavors combined with several variants (juices, drinks or nectars), is a testament to the fruit beverage industry transformation. In the view of the rising future potential of the industry, Niir Project Consultancy Services has released a new research report titled Ã¢â¬Å"Market Research Report on Packaged Fruit Juices & Drinks in India (Present & Future Potential, Market Insights, Growth Drivers, Opportunities, Industry Size, PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 Forces, Demand Analysis & Forecasts upto 2017)Ã¢â¬ . The report aims at providing a thorough understanding and analysis of the industry by deeply exploring the present status as well as the future prospects of the fruit beverage sector in India in the wake of evolving market dynamics. The report establishes the study by covering data points like growth drivers for the industry, opportunities, present scenario, demand supply estimation & analysis, porters 5 force analysis and key player information. The report begins with a brief on global status of the fruit beverage industry and then shares information on the current status of the industry on the domestic front. The report discusses the overview of the sector along with its classification and structure and then further proceeds to analyze the growth drivers and opportunities for the industry. Rising per capita incomes of the Indians, bulging middle class, surging modern trade and growing urbanization will be the macro economic factors that will contribute to its growth. Escalating health consciousness among Indians has lured them towards fruit beverages and the players have left no stone unturned in capturing this sudden rush of demand. Although the fruit beverage industry is dominated by the loose beverage segment, the share of packaged fruit beverages is gradually rising and eating away the other share. The report then discusses the demand-supply scenario of packaged fruit beverages in India by analyzing various aspects. The demand for packaged fruit beverages is captured by studying the consumption volumes and the industry revenues while the supply side involves scrutiny of estimated fruit processing units in the country along with the fruit production statistics of India. The data discussed above is supported by graphical representations wherever necessary along with the key forecasts. Moving forward, the report analyzes the attractiveness of the sector by evaluating the status of porters 5 forces prevalent in the sector. The sector is said to be most attractive when the 5 forces are their weakest and the report explicates the forces methodically to simplify the analysis. For more information kindly visit: http://www. marketreportsonindia. com/food-beverages-market-research-reports-11581/market-research-report-packaged-fruit-juices-drinks-india. html Related Links: http://www. marketreportsonindia. com/market-research-report/food-beverages. html About MarketReportsonIndia Market Report on India is a portal where you can access thousands of reports on India startingfrom Aeronautics to Zinc (A-Z). We provide you with reports which will help you gain a better understanding of the Sectors, Companies, New Products and Latest trends. Contact Us Market Reports on India Contact No: India: +91. 22. 27810772, 27810773 Toll Free US: 1-866-279-8368 mail: info@marketreportsonindia. com Website: http://www. marketreportsonindia. com Twitter: https://twitter. com/ReportsonIndia.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Bullying; when a person is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending him or herself (OWLEUS, Paragraph 1). This topic is one thatÃ¢â¬â¢s received extremes on both sides of its awareness, with some people thinking immediate harsh action needs to be taken, while others claim itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a kid game. Bullying is in no way a fun game that kids play among themselves; it is a very serious form of abuse that can lead children to skip school, drink alcohol, smoke, dropout, lead violent futures, and vandalize properties (HRSA, Page 3). As someone who used to bully other students in elementary school, I can understand the thirst for power brought on by feelingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Peer groups work fantastically since kids often trust each other more than they trust adults in cases like this (Berezdivin). Several schools have attempted several methods at cutting down bullying. The stat e of Georgia passed a three-strikes-and-youre-out policy; enacting that those three acts of bullying could have a child shipped to a school for troubled youths. Other states such as Colorado want to start younger by teaching kids in grades 2-4 how to walk past older kids speaking aggressively or Ã¢â¬Å"Be CoolÃ¢â¬ trainings to help kids learn between a Ã¢â¬Å"hotÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ response (Healy, Hequet, McKenna-Parker, Paragraph 4). A useful program to implement, that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve personally dealt with and even conducted, were the Peer Mediation programs for high school kids. Peer mediation gains tremendous power from the fact that the students are the ones who both notice the bullying, and act upon it. A school with this program gives the victim children a powerful venue to have information submitted anonymously and taken into revue by specialists or adults. These programs can not only stop the bullying, but can bring the mental and physical conditions of the victim to the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and have the proper aid given in time. (Berezdivin) Some sources believe that bullying is an exaggerated claim and that programs are both ineffective and unnecessary. Anti-bullying programs are forcing the OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢ anti-bullying curriculum on schools, costing thousandsShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of Bullying And Bullying986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe issue of bullying has become a continuing challenge in most schools. Bullying is something that continues to affect all schools throughout the United States. Bullying is defined as recurrent physical, verbal, sexual, or emotional attacks or pressure by one person who is viewed as being physically or mentally tougher than someone else (Raskauskas and Modell, 2011). Additionally, bullying is especially seen in or experienced by students in special education programs. Many students in specialRead MoreThe Issue Of Bullying And Bullying1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGOVT 2305 4 Nov. 2014 The Issue of Bullying Did you know each year there are over 3.2 million students that are bullied? (11 Facts About Bullying ) Bullying has been a fundamental human demobilizing act for centuries; that has been woven into the crevices of non-physical cruelty and abuse. A simple meaning of bullying is the need for control. (contributors) It has always involved power, pain, persistence and premeditation. Emily Bazelon wrote an article, defining bullying as physical or verbal abuseRead MoreThe Issues Of Cyber Bullying946 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Coastal Carolina University The Issues of Cyber-bullying Alyssa Staub CSCI 101 Ã¢â¬â D1 Professor Matthews October 23, 2017 Ã¢â¬Æ' Cyber bullying has been a topic for scholarly inquiry, political debate, and policy reform since the commercialization of the Internet. Pre-internet bullying involved socially marginalized children and teenagers picking on their friends and other marginalized children at school. Traditional discipline included detentions, phone calls to their parentsRead MoreBullying : A Social Issue1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBULLYING: A SOCIAL ISSUE 2 Abstract Bullying is an issue that has been overlooked for many years because of students being frightened to tell that they are being bullied. Many teachers, administrators, and school counselors underestimate the amount of bullying that takes place within schools. The behavior of bullying has impacted so many studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives to the point of causing a student to want to cause harm to his or her self or others. Many students that bully threaten theirRead MoreBullying Is A Serious Issue852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOf the many issues we face in society, I strongly believe there is a serious issue that is commonly overlooked. This issue happens to be bullying. Many people would be led to believe that bullying is something that only takes place in schools, commonly among younger children. Contrary to what many may think, this is extremely inaccurate. Bullying takes place before our eyes each and every day. Bullying can take place at school, work, and online. This issue is something that sh ould be addressed byRead MoreThe Issue Of Bullying At School951 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesassignment I am going to describe an issue that I passionate about it. Bully is an issue that destroys a family specialist the kid involve in the situation. Those children can experience negative physical, school, and mental health issues. Kids who are bullied are more likely to experience. Depression and anxiety, increased feelings of sadness and loneliness, changes in sleep and eating patterns, and loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy. These issues may persist into adulthood. Three actionsRead MoreBullying Is A Universal Issue1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBullying is a universal issue that can be found in schools worldwide and it has become an increasing pressing issue within the current school system. It can be said that bullying begins during the earlier stages of primary school and then continues through to secondary schools. According to the NSPCC (2014), bullying is defined as Ã¢ â¬Å"a behaviour that hurts someone.Ã¢â¬ This type of behaviour can involve an individual engaging in name calling, threatening another individual as well as physically abusingRead MoreThe Issue Of Cyber Bullying1997 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesare face to face with peers and friends daily so their internet use would be most prominent whilst at home. With such frequent activity and easily accessible Internet access problems are bound to arise which is how the issue of cyber bullying is born. The definition of Ã¢â¬Å"Cyber Bullying is the act of using the Internet, mobile phones, video games, or other technology gadgets to send, text, or post images intended to hurt or embarrass another person.Ã¢â¬ (Friendlyschools 2015). The case study topic of cyberbullyingRead MoreBullying And The Victim And Understanding The Issues Essay1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Bullying how to Protect the Victim and Understanding the Issues Rikkie Oree Johnson Way PSYC3520 Intro to Social Psychology Unit 9 Assignment 1 Capella University December ,2016 Stopping Victimology while Educating Others When interacting in a group environment what makes some individuals more prone to bullying behavior and others more likely to be the victim? These terms and actions once defined and understood can be itemized to break down the cycle of bullying. UnderstandingRead MoreBullying Is A Common And Serious Issue1218 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages What is teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ role in the school? Bullying is a common and serious issue in many schools these days and bullying is not only the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ but also in other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ problem. Basically, bullying prevents students from feeling safe in schools and also it prevents developing positive self-concepts. The longer bullying goes on, the more the students are affected. In handling bullying problems, teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role is the most important to prevent bulling because teachers can directly interact