Sunday, December 29, 2019
The Ryan White Care Act: HIV/AIDS Policy When HIV/AIDS was first known in the United States, people who were affected were dying at a rapid rate as the disease was new to the medical community. There was no treatment and because of that the disease became highly publicized. At the time there were hatred for those who were considered gay. Those who came out and spoke openly about their HIV and AIDS were often being victimized. With the fear and homophobia from society, gay men and women took to the street to demand a government response to AIDS and were influenced to create a national movement. Although the Ã¢â¬Å"war on AIDS have contributed to the development of policies, one important aspect of the disease was the Ryan White Care Act that came about from a young men who at the age of 13 was diagnosed with AIDs through a blood transfusion. It was this movement that brought about much awareness that HIV/Aids can happen to anyone. He was the first teenager, the first with hemophiliac to have AIDS. At the time, there was no education or information on AIDS. Since, the life and struggle of Ryan White, there has been changes in helping those with the disease. His death has sparked a national outcry for those who suffers with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). His legacy has left behind for people to receive better care and live a longer life. RyanÃ¢â¬â¢s effort and those who respond to the needs of the epidemic, has causedShow MoreRelatedNo One Left Behind ( Hiv / Aids )3059 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesNo One Left B ehind (HIV/AIDS) Imagine you are sick, afraid, enveloped in insecurity, not knowing what may lie ahead. It is in the darkest moments of a potentially fatal illness that we look to others for solace, we often turn to partners, family, friends, and our community. We rely on healthcare systems to provide medication, comfort, assistance and adequate treatment in order to assist in the recovery process, as well as to provide physical, and psychological well-being. What if the illness youRead MorePrevalence Of Hiv / Aids1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrevalence of HIV/AIDS in Ohio It was already stated that the HIV/AIDS epidemic impacts persons regardless of sex, age, race/ethnic group and/or geographic region in Ohio, but certain populations seem to be more impacted than others. There are 11, 544,225 people living in Ohio. 80% are white, 12% are black, 3% are Hispanic, and less than 2% are Asian. Each year in Ohio, about 1,000 people are diagnosed with HIV. In 2013, 1,180 people were diagnosed. Overall, there are almost 20,000 known to be livingRead MorePoverty With Hiv And Aids2242 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDue to gaps in policy oversight, the percentage of minorities living with HIV and AIDS in the United States remains high. It has remained high due in part to policies that were implemented during the early 90Ã¢â¬â¢s, emblematically The Ryan White Care Act, along with in policy makers for their failure to recognize the special needs and factors that pertain to minority groups, specifically African Americans and Non-white Hispanics. The racial disparities tha t have historically plagued these minority groupsRead MorePolicy Paper : Choice Of Policy1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPolicy Paper Choice of policy In the last two decades, there have been countless debates on the need to reform the United States of American health care system. The reform is to enable a more comprehensive system that will address pressing issues such as the growing number of uninsured American. The USA is one of the leading countries when in to healthcare and its systems. It is also the country with the most spending when it comes to healthcare. According to an article published in the commonwealthRead MorePolicies, Finance, Global Prevention Initiatives And Ethical Principles797 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPolicies, Finance, Global Prevention Initiatives and Ethical Principles Implementation of the Ryan White CARE Act of 1990 assures, people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and their families access to quality treatments (Akukwe, 2001). On July 2010, President Obama announced the National HIV/AIDS Strategy to reduce HIV incidence, optimizing better health outcomes, and to reduce HIV-related instances (Department of Veterans Affairs National HIV/AIDSRead MoreEssay on Regulatory Agency1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstatement Office of Inspector General (OIG), the text reads that OIG will ensure that disseminated information meets the standards of quality set forth in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Health and Human Services (HHS) and OIG guidelines. OIGÃ¢â¬â¢s policy is to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of information that it disseminates to the public. OIG strive to provide information that is accurate, reliable, clear, complete, unbiased, and useful. OIG i s committed toRead MorePrevention Of Hiv / Aids Essay1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesindividuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS involve several factors as it relates to a chronic disease. According to Auslander Freedenthal in Gehlert Browne (2012), HIV/AIDS is a chronic disease that once diagnosed, requires adherence to complex and challenging treatment regimens. Prevention of this disease requires changes in behavior that would lead to the reduction of less risky sexual behaviors. Harm reduction is a particular treatment approach that is used with HIV/AIDS individuals. As stated byRead MoreThe History Of Hiv And Aids Essay2469 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHistory of HIV and AIDS In the 1980s, a mysterious disease began to take the lives of Americans. With the cause unknown, a fear grew among Americans. An unusually high rate of people was becoming sick with strange and rare diseases. When experimental treatments failed to work, people died. This mysterious disease is what we now know as HIVÃ¢â¬âHuman Immunodeficiency Virus. In the past thirty-five years, the HIV has taken many turns in history. Although we do not hear about HIV and AIDS now, it isRead MoreDelivering Health Care in America1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMedicare Enrollment Ã¢â¬Å"Ringing in the New Year with New Health Care BenefitsÃ¢â¬ Some of the most important provisions of the Affordable Care Act will take effect in 2011. Starting this year, the vast majority of people with Medicare will see several new benefits, including free annual wellness check-ups, recommended preventive services without cost-sharing and discounts on prescription drugs in the Medicare Part D Ã¢â¬Å"donut holeÃ¢â¬ (Sebelius, Health Care, 2011). In addition, new rules will hold insurance companiesRead MoreHiv And Its Effects On The Asian Population1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesaged 13 years and older are living with HIV infection, including 156,300 (12.8%) who are unaware of their infection (CDC, 2014). The overall rate of infection still remains high, this increased rate is also seen in the Asian population. According to the CDC, between 2005 and 2014 the Asian population in the United States grew around 24%, more than three times as fast as the total U.S. population, and within this time period, the number of Asians receiving an HIV dia gnosis increased by nearly 70% (CDC
Saturday, December 21, 2019
In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ written by Maya Angelou, the poem is strong, it is about womanhood, the strength not the weakness that describes Maya Angelou. Although Maya Angelou is describing herself, she is in fact describing all women and is therefore a poem of feminism and the feminist perspective. The structure of this poem is loosely arranged into four stanzas. The idea of this poem is that physical beauty is not what makes a woman phenomenal but the way she has confidence in herself and her inner mystery. Ã¢â¬Å"PhenomenalÃ¢â¬ does not only mean Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"impressiveÃ¢â¬ it means to be worthy of attention. This poem explains how to have inner self-confidence no matter what your appearance is. In Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ , the most important literary devices are imagery, metaphors, and tone with a first person point of view. The style Angelou uses is feminist criticism, feminist approach expressed in the stanzas through her phenomena , which is different from other woman. In her poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomenÃ¢â¬ , Angelou effectively uses the literary devices to give reason to why she is phenomenal. The literary devices are powerful as it creates an awareness of not only her but of womanhood and the idea of being a strong black woman. AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ is a testament to why woman are revered even the face of gender inequality and with these specific literary devices she is able to effectively explain the reason she is phenomenal. To begin with, Angelou uses heavy imagery onlyShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou2030 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSummary of Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou Stanza 1: Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ begins with a attack on stereotypes. She proudly declares that she neither has a hourglass figure, nor a cute face. Her success without essential feminine traits surprises pretty women and they often want to know the secret of her success. She describes her secret saying that it comes from her confidence, the way she stretches her arms, the way she walks, the rhythm of her hips and also the way she smiles. Her entire body isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMaya Angelou, writer of, Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ illustrates that woman are as strong, determined, and beautiful just the way they are. We were built to fulfill the same roles as men and be able to achieve in anything what we set our minds to. We as woman should never let any man or significant other define us for who we are and the roles we play as young woman in the US. With this intention, women are born into the world and ar e taught to grow up to become a young, wise, and vibrant figure. AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof what makes an ideal woman; however, Maya Angelou shows us what truly makes a true Woman in her poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal Woman.Ã¢â¬ The word, Ã¢â¬Å"PhenomenalÃ¢â¬ is defined as something that is magnificent, remarkable, breathtaking, as well as extraordinary. This poem shows one the confidence and beauty from within, instead of the conventional views that society tend to have, which is to only focus on the appearance. She takes us to acknowledge womanhood. One is able to appreciate the poem even further, by analyzingRead MorePhenomenal Woman Essays1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Maya Angelou is best known for addressing the world through the medium of her own life. Her works are a reflection of the social issues that were prevalent in the second half of the 20th century. Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelou celebrates femininity and highlights the traits necessary for a woman to become Ã¢â¬Ëphenomenal.Ã¢â¬â¢ She believes that it is not the outer beauty of a person but the inner one which makes each woman phenomenal. She criticizes the biased societal expression that expects womenRead MoreMaya Angelou: Speak Up Essay example1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaya Angelou experienced a life-changing event at the vulnerable age of eight: her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend raped her. As a result, she chose to be mute for five years due to the emotional trauma this caused. Soon, a family friend named Mrs. Flowers, a wealthy and intellectual woman from Stamps, Arkansas where her grandmother resided, read with Angelou and helped Maya to express herself through writing. Mrs. Flowers taught Maya Ã¢â¬Å"words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voiceRead MoreEssay about Poetry: Emotions in Words 1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof expression and emotions through words. It encompasses the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s mood and point of view about a certain idea. Two poems that demonstrate the use of emotions in words are Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelou, and Ã¢â¬Å"A Dream within a DreamÃ¢â¬ , by Edgar Allan Poe. Both of these poets are very important in the literary field even though their ways of writing contrast each other. Angelou is a revolutionist who is known around the world for her astounding stories of racism, family, and overcoming adversityRead MoreAnalysis Of Maya Angelou s Caged Bird 1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe famous African American people. Growing up with my grandparents, I always heard a lot about the loving Dr. Maya Angelou. She was a tremendous figure in their lives and a phenomenal woman. One day my family was sitting outside, and my mom was reading a book with a lot of famous poems. The one she read aloud was Maya AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Caged Bird.Ã¢â¬ She was so emotional reading this poem. During that time, I did not understand her emotions. At my high school, we would always celebrate black historyRead MoreMaya Angelo - Phenomenal Woman766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomenÃ¢â¬ By Maya Angelo Ã¢â¬â Analysis In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelo expresses many viewpoints on the topic of women. She describes the many attributes of women throughout the poem. Many think that a slim and trim body or pretty faces are the many features of a true woman. But Angelo explains the small insignificant features of a woman that people or society never mention. She believes and convinces the reader that these are the marks of a woman. The poems central idea Analysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou Maya Angelou, writer of, Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ illustrates that woman are as strong, determined, and beautiful just the way they are. We were built to fulfill the same roles as men and be able to achieve in anything what we set our minds to. We as woman should never let any man or significant other define us for who we are and the roles we play as young woman in the US. With this intention, women are born into the world and are taught to grow up to become a young, wise, and vibrant figure. AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s poem is an elegant portray of feminism, as well as a love letter to every woman. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, woman are also brought into a world of comparison and never being truly satisfied with themselves. In agreement, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard not to compare ourselves towards other women and those who we admire the most, especially when it comes to portraying ourselves as a beautifully flawed person. Our flaws donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to define us, but do make up who we our as a woman and how we carry ourselves. One fact I find to be the most relevant within AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s poem that Ã¢â¬Å"Men themselves have wondered what they see in me. They try so much, but they canÃ¢â¬â¢t touch my inner mystery.Ã¢â¬ (line 30-34) Equally important, women donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily crave immediate attention towards other men, but simply, they only want to be given credit for all the hard work they put themselves through and for what they are on the inside. Ã¢â¬Å"When I try to show them, they say they still canÃ¢â¬â¢t see.Ã¢â¬ Point often overlooked, that there are soShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou2030 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSummary of Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou Stanza 1: Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ begins with a attack on stereotypes. She proudly declares that she neither has a hourglass figure, nor a cute face. Her success without essential feminine traits surprises pretty women and they often want to know the secret of her success. She describes her secret saying that it comes from her confidence, the way she stretches her arms, the way she walks, the rhythm of her hips and also the way she smiles. Her entire body isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou1353 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ written by Maya Angelou, the poem is strong, it is about womanhood, the strength not the weakness that describes Maya Angelou. Although Maya Angelou is describing herself, she is in fact describing all women and is therefore a poem of feminism and the feminist perspective. The structure of this poem is loosely arranged into four stanzas. The idea of this poem is that physical beauty is not wh at makes a woman phenomenal but the way she has confidence in herself and herRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Phenomenal Woman By Maya Angelou851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof what makes an ideal woman; however, Maya Angelou shows us what truly makes a true Woman in her poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal Woman.Ã¢â¬ The word, Ã¢â¬Å"PhenomenalÃ¢â¬ is defined as something that is magnificent, remarkable, breathtaking, as well as extraordinary. This poem shows one the confidence and beauty from within, instead of the conventional views that society tend to have, which is to only focus on the appearance. She takes us to acknowledge womanhood. One is able to appreciate the poem even further, by analyzingRead MorePhenomenal Woman Essays1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Maya Angelou is best known for addressing the world through the medium of her own life. Her works are a reflection of the social issues that were prevalent in the second half of the 20th century. Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelou celebrates femininity and highlights the traits necessary for a woman to become Ã¢â¬Ëphenomenal.Ã¢â¬â¢ She believes that it is not the outer beauty of a person but the inner one which makes each woman phenomenal. She criticizes the biased societal expression that expects womenRead MoreMaya Angelou: Speak Up Essay example1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMaya Angelou experienced a life-changing event at the vulnerable age of eight: her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s boyfriend raped her. As a result, she chose to be mute for five years due to the emotional trauma this caused. Soon, a family friend named Mrs. Flowers, a wealthy and intellectual woman from Stamps, Arkansas where her grandmother resided, read with Angelou and helped Maya to express herself through writing. Mrs. Flowers taught Maya Ã¢â¬Å"words mean more than what is set down on paper. It takes the human voiceRead MoreEssay about Poetry: Emotions in Words 1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof expression and emotions through words. It encompasses the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s mood and point of view about a certain idea. Two poems that demonstrate the use of emotions in words are Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelou, and Ã¢â¬Å"A Dream within a DreamÃ¢â¬ , by Edgar Allan Poe. Both of these poets are very important in the literary field even though their ways of writing contrast each other. Angelou is a revolutionist who is known around the world for her astounding stories of racism, family, and overcoming adversityRead MoreAnalysis Of Maya Angelou s Caged Bird 1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe famous African American people. Growing up with my grandparents, I always heard a lot about the loving Dr. Maya Angelou. She was a tremendous figure in their lives and a phenomenal woman. One day my family was sitting outside, and my mom was reading a book with a lot of famous poems. The one she read aloud was Maya AngelouÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"Caged Bird.Ã¢â¬ She was so emotional reading this poem. During that time, I did not understand her emotions. At my high school, we would always celebrate black historyRead MoreMaya Angelo - Phenomenal Woman766 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomenÃ¢â¬ By Maya Angelo Ã¢â¬â Analysis In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"Phenomenal WomanÃ¢â¬ by Maya Angelo expresses many viewpoints on the topic of women. She describes the many attributes of women throughout the poem. Many think that a slim and trim body or pretty faces are the many features of a true woman. But Angelo explains the small insignificant features of a woman that people or society never mention. She believes and convinces the reader that these are the marks of a woman. The poems central idea
Friday, December 13, 2019
Abstraction Hepatitis, one of the major incurable diseases, still exists presents jeopardizing many people Ã¢â¬Ës lives. It has many types i.e. We will write a custom essay sample on Hepatitis causes and effects or any similar topic only for you Order Now Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G. The nature of Hepatitis is viral which is caught by either through organic structure fluids or improper personal hygiene in add-on to other causes which remains unknown. This disease leads into serious physiological effects such as weariness, icterus and serious liver complication like liver Cirrhosis. Psychosocial consequence which is another result of Hepatitis includes societal backdown, anxiousness, depression and self-destructive inclination. Despite of the extended researches to happen a remedy for Hepatitis, there is still no effectual intervention for it so the duty of avoiding this infection is both on authorities and persons. Hepatitis is one of the most fatal diseases which was discovered in the early 1880ss ; it can be defined as an redness of the liver organ. Hepatitis is derived from the Latin words Ã¢â¬Å" Hepat Ã¢â¬ which means the liver and Ã¢â¬Å" itis Ã¢â¬ redness. The usual cause of Hepatitis is a virus that invades the organic structure through blood watercourse. This virus could acquire into the organic structure either through organic structure fluids or improper personal hygiene, taking to serious physiological and psychosocial effects. There are several types of Hepatitis, such as A, B, C, D, E and G. A, B and C viruses are the most common types of Hepatitis and all these viruses can do similar jobs and have similar symptoms, but they spread in different ways and have different effects on the organic structure. There are several manners of transmittal including contaminated organic structure fluids, improper personal hygiene in add-on to idiopathic causes. Contaminated organic structure fluids include spits, blood, fecal matters and piss. Blood transfusion is the most common method, where the blood is transferred from an septic patient to another patient what would be called Ã¢â¬Å" Horizontal Transmission Ã¢â¬ . Another method is the Ã¢â¬Å" Vertical Transmission Ã¢â¬ which occurs when a pregnant adult female base on balls it to her foetus. Furthermore, Ã¢â¬ contaminated acerate leafs shared by the drug maltreaters or in medical accidents such as needle pricksÃ¢â¬ is another manner emphasized by ( Nowak and Handford, 2004, p.379 ) . Having unprotected sex and multi-partners are other ways taking to this disease harmonizing to Nowak and Handford ( 2004 ) whom reported that Ã¢â¬Å" Sexual transmittal does happen, peculiarly among the homophiles. Note besides that 20 % of septic s traight persons pass the virus to their spouses. Ã¢â¬ ( p.380 ) . All of the above mentioned causes can take to Hepatitis B and C which are the most unsafe 1s. The 2nd major cause of Hepatitis is hapless hygiene, for case, personal and general. To get down with contaminated H2O such as sewerage lanes, rivers and public lavatories are topographic points of great hazard for hoarding Hepatitis A particularly to those who live nearby. This type of Hepatitis is normally transferred by fecal matters harmonizing to Fiore ( 2004 ) Ã¢â¬Å" HAV is chiefly transmitted by the fecal-oral path, either by person-to-person contact or by consumption of contaminated nutrient or H2O Ã¢â¬Å" ( p.705-15 ) .Moreover, common veggies and shellfish, such as boodles and oysters may be contaminated by sewerage to go beginnings of infection to worlds. Besides, personal hygiene is another component for reaching hepatitis and can happen by sharing razors, toothbrushes and towels, and leads to Hepatitis B and C. Despite antecedently discussed causes of this disease, there is still a great sector of hepatitis which remains unknown. Statisticss shows that Ã¢â¬Å" about 30 % of hepatitis B infection are of unknown beginningÃ¢â¬ ¦ .40 % of Hepatitis C instances are idiopathic Ã¢â¬ ( Nowak and Handford, 2004, p.379-80 ) . Where another article points that Ã¢â¬Å" beginnings is unknown but could be considerable ; 50 % of reported patients with hepatitis A do non hold an identified beginning of infection Ã¢â¬ ( Fiore, 2004, p.706 ) . But McHutchison A ; Bacon ( 2005 ) emphasized in their diagram of Ã¢â¬Å" Figure 2: Beginnings of Infection for Persons With Hepatitis C Ã¢â¬Å" that merely Ã¢â¬Å" 10 % of Hepatitis C infection are unknown Ã¢â¬ ( p.S287 ) . There are many effects of this disease which lie under the two classs: the physiological effects and psychosocial effects. Where the physiological effects contain all the symptoms of Hepatitis, the psychosocial effects indicate the emotional and societal effects of being a Hepatitis patient. The symptoms of the assorted signifiers of hepatitis are similar and they are caused by the harm in the liver. The most noticeable symptom is icterus which causes a yellowing of the tegument. Other symptoms associated with hepatitis include weariness, general organic structure hurting, sickness, mild febrility, and loss of appetency. As the infection spreads in the liver, the organ becomes enlarged. It may do hurting in the venters and in worst scenario can take to liver Cirrhoses which mean entire liver harm and finally decease. It takes seven to eight hebdomads after exposure to the Hepatitis virus for the symptoms to look. A patient with Hepatitis is non merely predisposed to physical symptoms, but besides to emotional and societal jobs. These complexnesss include depression and societal backdown as each one leads into the other, added to that depression and anxiousness which normally occur together. Anybody who suffers from Hepatitis will be dying and this anxiousness may take in to depression in sever instances, for illustration when a patient suffers from Hepatitis and he knows it is a serious unwellness rebelliously he will non halt badgering, these concerns can do the individual preoccupied with his unwellness and take him to depression. Furthermore, a Hepatitis patient societal withdraw as a consequence of being unable to happen a spouse who is willing to populate with this fatal disease. It is besides difficult to do people understand the nature of this serious disease and do friends and households accept and accommodate it. All this may drive the patient to be lonely and allure to be self-destr uctive. To sum up, Hepatitis is still one of our life clip enigmas to be solved. The spread of this disease is largely due to the natural or hygienic causes in add-on to some per centum of idiopathic causes which is still unknown. Like any other unwellness, Hepatitis has many drawbacks which could be listed under two classs physiological and psychosocial. Unfortunately, despite the advanced field of medicine Hepatitis remains un-ended and research continues in order to happen the ultimate intervention for it. Until a concluding remedy is found, precautional stairss should be taken by both authorities and persons. The authorities is responsible to guarantee infection control consciousness over this disease through its wellness system. But it is a personal duty to forestall oneself from this disease every bit good as any other disease by following the simple regulations of hygiene and guarantee to acquire proper wellness attention from dependable wellness constitutions merely. Mentions Fiore, E. ( 2004 ) . Hepatitis A Transmitted by Food. FOOD SAFETY, 38 ( 1 ) , 705-715. McHutchison, J. G. , A ; Bacon, B. R. ( 2005 ) . Chronic Hepatitis C: An Age Wave of Disease Burden. THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGED CARE, 11 ( 10 ) , S286-295. Nowak, T. J. , A ; Handford, A. G. ( 2004 ) . Pathophysiology: Concepts and Application for Health attention Professionals ( Third ed. ) . New york: Mc Graw Hill. Prevention, C. f. D. C. a. ( 2009 ) . Disease load from viral hepatitis A, B, and C in the United States [ Electronic Version ] . Retrieved 9 Dec 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/hepatitis/resources/dz_burden02.htm. How to cite Hepatitis causes and effects, Essay examples
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about theDescribe about agriculture, mining, human resources and water resources in Australia. Answer: The essence of the story in the article The story in the artcile focuses on supply and the demand of labor in Australia as a nation. The story outline six field of specialization which are mostly demanded by austrlian employers.The article was released by the Hay a recruiter as a quarterly report showng jobs which are highly demanded in australian in the current year 2017 (Pash 2017). The content of the artcile expresses the six fields as finacial analysts, payrollers, site managers, sales admnistration officers, development offiicers and operation engineers as well as data analysts. Accoring to the artcle, there are human resoucrce suppliers who in are indictated as the Austrlaian laborers and places Australian employers on the demand side. By placing the two parties as suppliers and buyers, it meets the topic of demand and supply of certain Asutarlian resources. According to the ccontent of the article, the most interested parties include Austrlaian employers who are required to utilize human resource in relation to the six fields. Another interested parties are the labores in Asutralia who are able and willing to offer their services to the employers at the prevailing wage rates. Moreover, the content futher outlines areas of interest based on the strong demand in renewable energy sector, human resources business partnering as well as disable case load administration (Doiron and Kalb 2015). According to the writers school of thought, it is evident that this year (2017) the labor market is full of various job qualifictions which should attract employers. Every employee is thus requiered to move steps further above job description and create a competetive advatage in order to secure a job in the Australian labor market. The writer of the article then comes up with a list of competetive advantages an employee should have in order to be able to secure jobs aby adding value to their employers (Gregory and Duncan 2011). The list requires employees to have qulaification such as discpline, efficiency gains, digital lieteracy and expoerience. The bottom line of argument in this case is that only capable job seekers will be able to secure opportunities but people of such skills are rare in labormarket and attract higher wage compensation. Economic analysis of the article The content of the article as stated above can be analysed using economic concept theories and models. The best economic theoritical concpet to applied in this case is demand and supply as well as equilibrium as indicated below: As already stated in section one of the paper, the artcile clasified the most interested people into two, the supliers and buyers. The supply and demand theory states that the higher the price the lower the demand within a given market. moreover,the lower the price the higher the demand and this applies to the supply theory (Levitan, Mangum and Marshall 2012). Applying demand and supply theory to the issues outlined in the content of the aticle means shows that demand and supply of the six identified fields will rise leading to high prices. When prices are high most of the laborers will be willing to offer their skills to Australian employers. From the identified overhead issues above, there is a clear evidence of the existence of excees demand in the job market in future (Nickell and Bell 2015). This can also be expressed in other terms as labor shortage in Australia. Taking for instance the issue of para planners and fiancial planners job candiates who are required by Autsrlian employers to have a digree in their field of specialization along with ADFP or CFP are short in supply. Apart from this category of candidates, there is a high demand for quantitative risks analysts and childhood teachers who as well are in short supply in Australia leading to higher prices. Based in these few sectors as outlined in the article, there is an overal l labor shortage in Australia which comes as a result of the additional requirements needed by the employers. According to demand and supply, the lower the demand the higher the prices and this is evident in Australia (OBrien et.all 2011). Recently the National Disability Insurance Scheme created a large demand for child care managers and this has resulted into an increased wages for such individual workers. My view on the story According to the above analysis, I will give recommendation to each stakeholders. There is need for Australian employees to develop their qualifications according to employers demands. Australian employees should not concentrate only on job descriptions and experience but rather create unique qualifications which are required by employers in the six fields. This is because most of the employers in the identified six fields require employees with additional benefits to the organization. Moreover, the organization should up their skills in risk management, financial planning which are required by banking sector. Employees are also encourage to improve their skills in industrial robotics and organizational management. Based on the high demand on child care, Australian job seekers should acquire experience in childcare education. With up skills in each of the six highly demanded fields, workforce participation will move up as employees will have skills for in various industries as shown below: Recommendation to employers Based on the above analysis it is recommended for employers to conduct internal workforce improvements and job upskills. This will help them have qualified workforce rather than looking for employeesform the job markets with required qualifications. Employers instead of looking for worskers with the required job qualifications, should organise internal job upskills through workshops, seminars as well as trainng conferences to provide supplementary value to their task force (Segal and Bolton 2009). The employers should try to improve their employees to their required job standards by bringing trainers as well as contraicting various training institutions in order to help improve workforce performance. Conclusion and support analysis The above analysis supports this conlusion in that the qualifications and experince required by employers in the six field identified. There is short supply despite the excess demand by the employers for qualified employees in the six fields. The shortage is as a result of employees who are currently in australia to do not have qaulifications which can enble them do suplementary work. The employers as already stated, require workforce team who can take suplementary work and add value to their organizations. Based on this, many people in the australian job market are not employed as they lack values to add to their employers. References Doiron, D. and Kalb, G., 2015. Demands for child care and household labour supply in Australia. Economic Record, 81(254), pp.215-236. Gregory, R.G. and Duncan, R.C., 2011. Segmented labor market theories and the Australian experience of equal pay for women. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 3(3), pp.403-428. Levitan, S.A., Mangum, G.L. and Marshall, R., 2012. Human resources and labor markets. New York: Harper Row. Nickell, S. and Bell, B., 2015. The collapse in demand for the unskilled and unemployment across the OECD. Oxford review of economic policy, 11(1), pp.40-62. OBrien?Pallas, L., Baumann, A., Donner, G., Murphy, G.T., Lochhaas?Gerlach, J. and Luba, M., 2011. Forecasting models for human resources in health care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(1), pp.120-129. Pash, C. (2017). The 6 jobs Australian recruiters say will be in demand in 2017. Business Insider , 1-4. https://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-6-jobs-australian-recruiters-say-will-be-in-demand-in-2017-2017-1 Segal, L. and Bolton, T., 2009. Issues facing the future health care workforce: the importance of demand modelling. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 6(1), p.12.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
The Human Age Manpower Essay We generate power by connecting: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the visions of clients, Ã¢â¬ ¢ the motivations of people, Ã¢â¬ ¢ and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s now and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next in the World of Work. The World of Work trends that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve identified are foundationalÃ¢â¬âtheyÃ¢â¬â¢re foundational to how we act, where we invest and where we focus our thought leadership. 3 Navigating the Changing World of Work ManpowerÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of delivering innovative high-impact workforce solutions to enhance the competitiveness of the organizations and the individuals we serve is anchored in what we know. Based on our local expertise and global reach we know that there is an increasing velocity of change happening every day in the way work is performed. We have identified four megatrends impacting the World of Work. We didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stumble upon these trends, but researched them with intense curiosity. The Demographics and Talent Mismatch is the conundrum that both individuals and companies are feeling right now. As the working age population declines and companies are looking for talent, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re looking in a much more specific way, yet individuals are also being more selective when they can. Individual Choice is creeping in wherever possible. Individuals are exercising their choice as they realize they have the power to opt for or against a given job, which in turn is requiring companies to think differently about how they attract, retain and stay relevant to an ever select group of talented individuals. Rising Customer Sophistication is happening across the board. The transparency and velocity of information exchange throughout the entire value chain is creating innovation and tension at every level within that chain. We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Human Age Manpower specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Technological Revolutions are at the heart of almost all of this. Having the power to change where, when and how we work, enabling organizations and individuals to be more agile and innovative is happening on a daily basis and weÃ¢â¬â¢ve only seen the tip of the iceberg. The World of Work trends are foundationalÃ¢â¬âtheyÃ¢â¬â¢re foundational to how we act, where we invest and where we focus our thought leadership. They are drivers of secular growth at the core of our business as well as in our specialty areas and outcomebased solutions. It is our grasp of these trends that gives us the confidence that we are addressing our clients and candidates with real solutions Ã¢â¬â solutions that are practical, adaptable and flexible. Navigating the Changing World of Work 4 Demographics 5 Navigating the Changing World of Work and Talent Mismatch Demographic and economic shifts are accelerating the talent mismatch. The pressure to find the right skills in the right place at the right time will increase as working age populations decline, economies rebound, emerging markets rise, and the nature of work shifts. Navigating the Changing World of Work 6 Teachable Fit As the talent mismatch grows more severe, the Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a practical framework that becomes fundamental to talent strategyÃ¢â¬âand employers need a talent strategy that not only keeps up with business strategy, but accelerates it. 7 Navigating the Changing World of Work The recession has cast a new light on talent supply and management around the world. Unemployment is persistently high in developed and even in many developing countries, yet organizations worldwide report difficulty filling key positions. There are not enough sufficiently skilled people in the right places at the right times. Simultaneously, employers are seeking ever more specific skill sets and combinations of skills that will help drive the organization forward. Employers are also facing ongoing, systemic talent shortagesÃ¢â¬âsuch as those in the healthcare and energy industriesÃ¢â¬âare not going to fill the gaps one hire at a time. Instead, they must recalibrate their mindsets to consider candidates who may not meet all of the job specifications, but whose capability gaps can be filled in a timely and costeffective way. The key to success with this new mindset is the ability to identify a Teachable Fit Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a concept that focuses on four questions: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What capabilities are essential to performing the job? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Which of these are teachable in an efficient way? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is there adequate time and money to develop these capabilities in the candidate? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do candidates have the capacity to develop them? In any problem of supplydemand imbalance, employers have two options: to hold out for the perfect candidate or find the Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit. The focus here is on increasing the supply by changing the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset regarding sources of available talent. To fill large and systemic talent gaps, four potential labor pools are promising: location migrants, industry migrants, internal role changers and workforce entrants. Location migrants. The global workforce is on the move, and candidates may be willing to relocate for workÃ¢â¬ âespecially when the recession eases. However, employers are still learning to capitalize on this trend, while many governments are still unsure about whether or how to facilitate productive work migration. Three-fourths of workers said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d consider relocating for a better job opportunity, one-third said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be willing to consider relocating anywhere in the world, and Navigating the Changing World of Work 8 Teachable Fit 40 percent said theyÃ¢â¬â¢d consider moving permanently. Industry migrants. Some industries are cutting their workforces, while others are growing faster than the talent supply. Consider the talent available in low-growth industries that can migrate into new fields. Some of these people may have highly valued skillsÃ¢â¬âsuch s those in sales, finance, and managementÃ¢â¬âthat need translation to a new industry. Others may have skills adjacent to growing needsÃ¢â¬âsuch as technicians and field supportÃ¢â¬â Growing Industries ? Education ? Healthcare ? Professional Business Services Shrinking Industries ? Mining -1. 5 ?Manufacturing ? Utilities -1. 0 -0. 5 0 ?Other Services ? Wholesale Retail Trade ? Federal Government 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0 2. 5 Average annual rate of change (%) 3. 0 3. 5 9 Navigating the Changing World of Work Teachable Fit and require more extensive training to bridge skills gaps. Internal role changers. Often the best source of Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ talent is the people already in your companyÃ¢â¬âif your organization has the foresight and ability to redeploy them into different roles or even careers. Workforce entrants. The underemployed and underskilled are another potential pool, especially as local governmental agencies and others move to help them with training and other programs to enable their transition into the workforce. Training and development are the keys to successfully tapping into the talent pools listed above, especially among the last three groups. This is where the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ comes in. When employers canÃ¢â¬â¢t find candidates with the full range of skills needed for particular positions, they can recruit candidates who possess adjacent skills with an eye toward filling the gaps in their capabilities. The important point here is to understand how fillable those gaps areÃ¢â¬âboth in terms of technical skills and candidate mindsetsÃ¢â¬âand at what cost. Ã¢â¬Å"Teachable fitÃ¢â¬ is a practical framework that can predict how successfully a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s skills gaps can be filled. The framework is an analytical tool that maps the capabilities needed for a given role against an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s likelihood of meeting those needs. The capabilities are divided into four groups: Navigating the Changing World of Work 10 Teachable Fit Knowledge of business or academic disciplines or industries. Formal or explicit knowledge comes through study and is confirmed by academic degrees and business certifications. Informal or tacit knowledge comes through experience and association with knowledgeable colleagues. The key here is to recognize the importance of tacit knowledge and the means of attaining it. Skills including both Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ skills (e. g. , technical or administrative 11 Navigating the Changing World of Work skills) and Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ skills (e. . , conflict resolution or strategic thinking). Skills tend to be applied and pragmatic. They are acquired through practice and grow with experience. Hard skills can be confirmed by certification or apprenticeship. It is vital to recognize the importance of soft skills, rather than focusing only on candidate assessments on the easier-to-measure hard skills . Values and Mindset represent what an individual seeks in life and on the jobÃ¢â¬âoneÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward work. These are revealed through both conversation and behavior and are relatively difficult to shape. They are also capabilities associated with jobs. Some jobs require more day-in-day-out initiative and selfmanagement than others. Some jobs depend on continuous learning and adaptation. The key here is to recognize these important traits when defining the job requirements. Personality and Intelligence are basic characteristics. Some Teachable Fit people are naturally outgoing and empathetic and thus natural fits for customer service roles; others are the opposite. Some roles rely heavily on analytical intelligence, others on synthesis or creativity, others on emotional intelligence and many on combinations of the above. Again, the idea is to be as precise as possible about what a job or role calls for in terms of these traits. After examining the four areas of capability, the employer then weighs each on two scales: Is it important? How essential is the capability to performing the work well? The tendency may be to over-emphasize knowledge (e. g. , through conventional academic degree requirements) and hard skills, when in fact the knowledge and skills directly required by the job may be basic. Similarly, the tendency may be to under-emphasize soft skills and traits when in fact they are absolutely essential to success in the role and the workplace. Employers should avoid this pitfall. According to research from talent and career management expert Right Management (a Manpower company) the key factors leading to accelerated performance arenÃ¢â¬â¢t top-notch technical skills or previous experience, but such qualities as cultural fit and interpersonal savvy. Is it teachable? To what extent and with what degree of difficulty can the capability be developed? Look first at the available methodsÃ¢â¬âcourses, mentors, opportunities to Navigating the Changing World of Work 12 Teachable Fit practice, and so onÃ¢â¬âboth inside and outside the organization. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that because a capability is theoretically teachable, an organization is equipped to teach it. A staff may be experienced, but the question is whether they are willing and able to double as instructors. Carefully consider the time and cost needed to develop the capability. If either is prohibitive, then for practical purposes the capability is not teachable. In developing each job taxonomy for Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fit,Ã¢â¬ the idea is not to generalize capabilities or lower standards. Rather, itÃ¢â¬â¢s to be more detailed and specific about the pragmatic requirements of the job, and more focused on the gaps that can be filled. This approach can help determine what capabilities really matter for success. By dissecting job roles, employers can identify the skills that can migrate across industries or be developed with relative ease. As the global economy continues to improve, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s talent mismatch will become more pronounced. Employers must recognize that the talent imbalance is not something they can fix one position and one well-qualified candidate at a time. The Ã¢â¬Å"teachable fitÃ¢â¬ framework is a key step in an approach that is more expansive, systematic and sustainableÃ¢â¬âa talent strategy that not only keeps up with business strategy, but accelerates it. 3 Navigating the Changing World of Work Teachable Fit Teachable Fit Framework Knowledge Business or academic disciplines Capabilities Academic/Professional Discipline Industry/Function/Process Technical 1 (low) 5 (high) Important? Teachable? 1 (low) 5 (high) Skills Problem-Solving Communication Planning/Organization Collaboration/ Teamwork Fixed Demonstrated aptitudes and practices, both Ã¢â¬Å"hardÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"softÃ¢â¬ Flexible Values Mindset Self-Management/Autonomy Initiative Motivation to Learn Service Orientation Attitudes that people bring to jobs and jobs need in people Personality Intelligence Basic character and mental traits Analytical Capacity to Learn Navigating the Changing World of Work 14 The Borderless Workforce Propelling the movement of talent around the world are widespread demographic changes Ã¢â¬â in particular the big gap in population growth between developed and developing countries. 15 Navigating the Changing World of Work TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s global workforce is on the move as never before. Most employers and governments, however, are a long way from fully understanding the complex issue of talent mobility and its growing role in the talent shortages that are affecting todayÃ¢â¬â¢s global labor markets. The complexities are many. These are not the one-time, one-way migrations of yesteryear. Talent goes where talent is needed, and flights home are readily available for those who wish to return. Work is moving too, as businesses set up operations near new markets and sources of supply. Propelling the movement of talent around the world are widespread demographic changesÃ¢â¬âin particular the big gap in population growth between developed and developing countries. According to the United Nations, the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population is expected to increase by 2. billion over the next 40 years, and almost all of The Borderless Workforce Employers Concerned About Losing National Talent that growth will take place in the less developed regions. Other factors are also accelerating the movement of workers. As a general rule, globalization creates further globalization: more people are exposed to communications about foreign cultures and more are traveling on vacation as well as for work. Englis h as a second language is growing fast; China, for example, is accelerating its English teaching programs to ensure that its managers and ustomer facing staff become more proficient in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most prevalent business language. So how should employers respond to the forces of talent mobility? Many see it as an opportunity to cut labor costs and elevate their skills mix. Others see it as a threat to their hold on their best talent. Of course, employers have only limited control over the factors that determine where workers work, and why. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Know 15% No 54% Yes 31% Source: Manpower Inc. , Borderless Workforce Survey, 2008 Navigating the Changing World of Work 16 The Borderless Workforce The Taxonomy of the Talent Migration Brain Export: Common among some developing countries that choose to educate and export talent with the intention of comparable exchange in the medium- and long-term, via remittances, technological interchange or skills enhancement. Brain Globalization: Talent mobility as a component of international commerce. Transnational organizations and globalization require international mobility. Brain Exchange: Transnational organizations engage in a comparable exchange of staff members between country operations. Brain Circulation: Skilled personnel live and work in foreign countries for a certain period of time, then return to their country of origin or travel to a new destination country. Brain Drain: When the migration of people possessing a higher education and in-demand skills exceeds that countryÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to educate/train suitable replacements. Country of origin loses any return on its original investment in education and training. Brain Waste: When a country is unable to retain highly skilled/educated people, who then willingly travel to other destinations and perform functions that are beneath their skill level. Individuals often accept this Ã¢â¬Å"trade-offÃ¢â¬ for better living conditions. 17 Navigating the Changing World of Work The Borderless Workforce Some employers benefit from far-sighted, fact-driven governments that plan national talent strategies in detail and over the long term. Others chafe against inward- looking government immigration policies that make visa applications extremely time-consumingÃ¢â¬â to the point where many top foreign candidates go elsewhere. Talent mobility, then, is both the product and cause of an uneasy mix of unemployment and talent scarcity. It presents governments and employers with challenges f a scope and scale they have not previously encountered Ã¢â¬â yet it offers them opportunities that they find difficult to imagine. The increasingly mobile workforce has many faces. All sorts of workers are on the move Ã¢â¬â Jamaican agricultural workers each year head to Massachusetts in the U. S. , Indian construction workers to Dubai, Latvian stone workers to Northern Ireland in the U. K. , and British finance controllers to Shanghai, where 40,000 foreigners now work (Ã¢â¬Å"Number of Foreigners Working in China Soars,Ã¢â¬ PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Daily Online, April 4, 2006 http://english. people. om. cn/200604/04/ eng20060404_ 255781. html). The skills mix is broad as well. At the upper end of the skills spectrum are the professionals and managers whose movements form a kind of internal labor market within multinational companies. They may also involve short-term assignments or commuting across borders. Navigating the Changing World of Work 18 The Borderless Workforce The talent shortages, exacerbated by soaring wages, have sparked a big jump in the movement of skilled tradespeople as well. There also continues to be strong movement of low-skilled workers. In fact, laborers comprise the leading category now being filled with workers from foreign countries. In the many cases where employers hire for specific positions Ã¢â¬â either directly or through agencies Ã¢â¬â foreign 19 Navigating the Changing World of Work workers will generally end up in jobs for which they are a good match. But where workers tend to act on their own, they can end up in jobs for which they are significantly over-qualified. That mismatch between skills and roles is one of the factors contributing to a big shift that has never been so apparent before: a huge Ã¢â¬Å"reversemigrationÃ¢â¬ movement. Reverse migration, however, is not new and may have benefits beyond those for individuals. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) argues that the temporary employment of foreign workers introduces flexibility into the labor market. This can help dissuade employers from resorting to the use of undocumented workers. So what spurs people to leave their homes Ã¢â¬â other than the obvious issue of jobs elsewhere when there are none at home? There are many parallels that cut across all levels of The Borderless Workforce demographics and skills. Clearly, money and economic growth are significant drivers for those less skilled, and both physical and cultural distance militate against them moving. For white collar workers, there can be many other factors moving them away from home. Many go for the adventure, to acquire new skills, to learn a language or improve their language skills. Still others see such moves as fast paths to accelerate careers; younger up-and-comers can often take on more responsibility and gain more experience and business skills more rapidly in a foreign country than they ever could at home. In the new global economy, more and more forward thinking employers choose to send their Ã¢â¬Å"high potentialÃ¢â¬ managers overseas to gain the experience of other cultures and working styles. In fact, for managers in many multinationals, a crossborder assignment is now considered mandatory for those aspiring to the executive suite. In the past few years, the percentage of SP 500 CEOs with international experience has increased from 26 percent to 34 percent (Ã¢â¬Å"The Route to the Top for TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Enterprise Leader,Ã¢â¬ Spencer Stuart, 2008, http://content. spencerstuart. com/sswebsite/pdf/lib/ GMstudy0408. pdf). Not everyone believes that talent mobility is a good thing. There are the obvious factors Navigating the Changing World of Work 20 The Borderless Workforce of dislocation from family and friends at home, cultural alienation and prejudice in the new workplace. And there can often be language issues Ã¢â¬â sometimes even within a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s borders Ã¢â¬â along with fierce competition with other migrants and with locals who see the newcomers as stealing jobs. Talent mobility is a growing part of the solution to employersÃ¢â¬â¢ shortages of talent. But it is arguable whether even the best multinationals have 21 Navigating the Changing World of Work arnessed talent mobility as it must now be harnessed. It is not as simple as enhancing the current expatriate-deployment programs or adding enticements to relocation packages. What is needed is a holistic, far-sighted strategic approach. The process of forecasting and talent mobility planning will become an integral component of th e business planning process as talent shortages worsen in the years ahead. The process of forecasting and talent mobility planning will become an integral component of the business planning process as talent shortages worsen in the years ahead. The Borderless Workforce Navigating the Changing World of Work 22 Individual 23 Navigating the Changing World of Work Choice Individual Choice is eliminating the one-size-fits-all approach and elevating the need for one-size-fits-one. Individuals are exercising the power of choice in all situations, choosing for and against opportunities. The increased specificity of skills that employers are seeking, coupled with the increased confidence in choice that individuals are exercising, is profoundly impacting governments, organizations and individuals worldwide. Navigating the Changing World of Work 24 The Underleveraged Solution In the developed world, meanwhile, the population is aging and the number of young people entering the workforce is shrinking. There simply will not be enough qualified workers to fill the jobs that will drive growth. 25 Navigating the Changing World of Work Due to the indisputable fact that the working-age population is shrinking, the global talent squeeze will only get tighter, especially after we fully emerge from the current financial crisis. The recession doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mitigate matters over the long term. Even now, positions at all levels continue to go unfilled in such service-sector fields as engineering, IT and healthcare. To address the problem, governments and enterprises must figure out how to expand their workforces. To do that, they should look to one particular demographic group that is woefully underrepresented in the formal economy and has much more to contribute: women. It is clear the world of work is undergoing a transformation. As the service sector continues its ascent, the need for workers is great and growingÃ¢â¬âeven now. Economists say the number of service-sector jobs will grow by at least 500 million between 2004 and 2015. In the developed world, meanwhile, The Underleveraged Solution the population is aging and the number of young people entering the workforce is shrinking. There simply will not be enough qualified workers to fill the jobs that will drive growth. The solution is to expand the labor pool. In 2008, the International Labour Organization (ILO) found that at the global level, the employment-to-population ratio Ã¢â¬â an index to how well economies are taking advantage of the productive potential of heir working-age population Ã¢â¬â was 49. 1 percent for women in 2007 compared to 74. 3 percent for men. The contemporary world of work sorely needs women to participate in higher numbers and appears to offer greater potential for the kind of flexibility that women so often need. Yet all too often women canÃ¢â¬â¢t, or wonÃ¢â¬â¢t, participate. The benefits of women participating in t he workforce are striking, but there are many barriers. Some of the barriers are cultural and therefore difficult to address at the policy level. But many are structuralÃ¢â¬âvestiges of an age when the five-day, 40-hour week was the norm. That model is impractical for many women who bear primary responsibility for childcare and other family obligations. Companies and countries that evolve quickly to bring women into the workforce today give themselves a better chance to prosper over the long term. Those that donÃ¢â¬â¢t will struggle to stay competitive. Navigating the Changing World of Work 26 The Underleveraged Solution Getting women into the workforce is vital, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s just as important to keep them there. A paradigm shift is in order. We must value results and knowledge gained rather than time spent in the office. Paths toward advancement must be created for womenÃ¢â¬âand othersÃ¢â¬âwho do not sit in an office five days a week, eight hours a day, so that they can achieve success at a pace that works for them. Policies that support the rights of women and allow them to develop professionally while balancing work and home duties will reward organizations with higher employee engagement and retention levels. A paradigm shift is in order. We must value results and knowledge gained rather than time spent in the office. 27 Navigating the Changing World of Work The Underleveraged Solution Navigating the Changing World of Work 28 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The challenge presented by an aging workforce and pervasive talent shortages is complex and multi-faceted, which is why employers are still struggling to determine how best to plan ahead and gain a strategic advantage. 29 Navigating the Changing World of Work What percentage of your workforce is planning to retire in the next five to 10 years and what impact will it have on your organization? This is a key question that should be on the agenda for discussion at management meetings worldwide, as talent shortages worsen and replacements for those exiting the workforce become more difficult to find. But, even armed with this knowledge, few employers are finding any long-term solutions to prevent the obvious talent shortages and brain drain that are clearly emerging. The challenge presented by an aging workforce and pervasive talent shortages is complex and multi-faceted, which is why employers are still struggling to determine how best to plan ahead and gain a strategic advantage; it is not just a question of how to get older workers to remain relevant and continue contributing to the workforce; it is also about how to get the most out of the The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce ounger generations, whose numbers are too small to fully replace those who have gone before them, and how to do this in a way that is consistent with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Strategic plans to attract critical talent to the organization and retain the near-retirement population in key roles will become a key focus at this point, as it is now clear where the organization should be dedicating resour ces to ensure a steady supply of key talent. At the same time, the organization will need to identify and develop high-potential employees to replace those exiting due to retirement. This cycle of demographic forecasting and workforce planning will become an integral component of the business planning process as talent shortages worsen. One of the key reasons that employers are not doing more to try and recruit or retain older workers as part of their talent management strategy is simply that they do not yet understand how to do so effectively. Employers have done much in recent years to provide better worklife balance for working parents; they have not yet gained a full understanding of what work-life balance means to the older worker. Navigating the Changing World of Work 30 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The key to engagement of the older adult in the workforce is to focus on the same issues that are important to other age groups: Performance-based compensation: Sending a clear message about the value of the individual rather than just paying more due to job tenure allows the older worker to know how he is performing compared to his peers. Having a clear understanding of what is expected: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t assume that an older employee knows what is expected of her just because of her tenure. New management and a rapidly changing business world can leave an older worker uncertain of her priorities; just as it can her younger peer. Having a sense of belonging: As the demographic composition of work groups evolves, care should be taken to ensure everyone is included in team- building activities and informal communication channels. Being treated equally and with respect: Disparate behavior toward older workers can happen in subtle ways such as planning team-building activities that the older worker cannot relate to, or giving all of the new learning opportunities to the younger members of the team. Supervisors need to be vigilant in recognizing the diversity of their team and making decisions that provide equal treatment. 31 Navigating the Changing World of Work The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce Access to tools, resources, information and training: As with all other employees, the older worker needs the same level of tools, resources and information to perform effectively in her role. Further, it should not be assumed that because an individual is older and quite capable she is no longer interested in receiving training. Companies that create a culture of continuous learning for all employees will be the most successful in engaging their workforces. Open and honest two-way feedback: Often, the older worker whose skills have faded is unaware that she is falling behind because supervisors and peers do not want to hurt her feelings. This is a disservice to the individual, who continues to require honest feedback in order to address performance issues adequately. Conversely, if the older worker does not have a two-way communication channel with her supervisor, she may feel unable to express her wishes to adjust her work relationship ue to changing priorities in her life. As a result, the supervisor misses the opportunity to retain the employee in a modified role and instead, loses her to retirement prematurely. Strong teamwork: As with all employees, a strong sense of teamwork results in greater productivity for the team members. This remains true throughout an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s career, regardless of h is full-time or parttime status. Navigating the Changing World of Work 32 The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce Recognition: It is never a mistake to recognize a job well done. The need to provide recognition of employees across all age groups and levels is often overlooked by management, especially during the extremely busy periods when recognition matters most. Opportunities for career advancement: Career development and advancement opportunities should remain available to all employees throughout the duration of 33 Navigating the Changing World of Work their careers. It is a mistake to assume that an individual is Ã¢â¬Å"coasting to retirement. Understanding how the role contributes to the success of the business: As business continues to evolve, it remains important for all employees to have a clear understanding of how they are contributing to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall goals. A sustainable and growing economy will not be possible in the talent-poor future without a strong and vibrant labor market that includes talent pools that are currently under-represented in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workforc e. The New Agenda for an Aging Workforce The Multi-Generational Workforce Traditionalist Boomer Generation X Generation Y Born 1928Ã¢â¬â1945 Born 1946Ã¢â¬â1964 Born 1965Ã¢â¬â1979 Born 1980Ã¢â¬â Each generation has different assumptions, motivations and expectations about work and makes different choices when it comes to where, when and how they work. Regardless of generation, individuals need to think about the choices they make, as they are choosing against one thing when opting for another. Organizations need to adopt more flexible mindsets, adjust work arrangements and people practices to recruit, retain and leverage the multigenerational workforce to win. Navigating the Changing World of Work 34 Rise of 35 Navigating the Changing World of Work Customer Sophistication CustomersÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations around price and value will rise, shifting the key competitive differentiator from a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s access to capital to access to talent. Customers have more access to information, experts and lower cost channels which increases visibility and subsequent pressure on companies to deliver value. Employers have become more sophisticated in assessing their workforce and are looking for specific skills that enable their companies to do more with less to meet ever-rising consumer needs. Navigating the Changing W
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Memo on Behavior Memo: to InterClean managersSubject: Management BehaviorThis memo is to encourage all first line managers to consider the impending finalization of the merger between InterClean and EnvironTech. This should a positive move for our two companies and it will be our responsibility to orchestrate this event in order to combine the personnel of both companies into a larger and even more successful business. The combination of these two fine organizations is no less than the merging of two cultures. Both companies include personnel, management styles, policies and procedures which, although different, are representative of previous successful implementation towards similar goals. Neither former company's culture may be perceived or rendered as inferior to the other. A period of evaluation and reasonable consideration must occur in order to assimilate the two companies.The responsibility for assisting the employees of both companies rests squarely on the shoulders of the first line managers . The employees of each of the previous organizations are accustomed to the unique management styles of their former organizations and they will be looking for leadership in accepting new and different methods and approaches towards the successful completion of their tasks.A few issues of SHRM's monthly publication HR Maga...Problems and conflicts are expected to emerge. This is inevitable and the managers will be called upon to realize that an open approach and patience will be expected. Resolution of such conflicts will be with a vision for a profitable future for the newly formed organization. This will be a task of integration of functions from each of the companies with the idea of maximizing productivity.I would encourage a proactive approach in order to counteract any friction that may develop. There will be a certain amount of posturing by some for retention of previous authority. This is natural and should be dealt with in a way which will allow all...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Literature Review - Thesis Example Applying the lean principles is an important part of the stages where the product development takes place. The key part of VSM is to understand and visually represent the processes involved. It is essentially therefore a modelling of all processes involved in the product development. When the product is developed or even during the design stage, it is also necessary to validate these processes. The various case studies mentioned in this paper show how lean principles have been applied and how VSM is carried out, for what purpose and the outcomes achieved. It is shown that at the heart of this is the extraction of as much value as possible. The important element that enables the above is data. Data collection and analysis is therefore the foundation for the entire endeavour. However, managing the data is not a straightforward task. There are issues of quality and procedures to consider for data management and movement, security and traceability, and appropriate data modelling. Data warehousing provides a total architecture for all data collection, storage and retrieval requirements, which is suitable for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Moreover, data mining allows lean principles to be applied for extracting valuable data. Vibration testing is one particular area in which lean principles and VSM not only have significant potential but their use is critical. This is especially so for safety reasons besides improvements to structural design, increasing the longevity of the product and enhancing its overall quality. This review of the literature delves on the ideas and studies of others on the topic of value stream mapping. This could help to gather useful ideas, improve existing ones, and also put the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s own study into context. Following a brief description of lean principles and methodologies, we describe Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in detail and discuss the significance of value as well as
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
The Barriers of Critical Thinking - Essay Example Some of these barriers are discussed briefly as follows: Self-serving bias refers to the tendency of individuals to elevate the perception of self in a manner that helps them in protecting their self-esteem. This concept entails that people do not always think about and perceive things as they since it results in self-criticism and viewing themselves in an unpleasant light (Kirby, Goodpaster, and Levine 1999). While self-confidence is a critical element for success, however over-confidence in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own abilities acts as a barrier to success since it prevents us from analyzing our weaknesses and overseeing our flaws, leading to disastrous results in the long run. Example: A strong sense of belief in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities and the perception that you are more intelligent and capable than others; tendency to shift the blame regarding any negative experiences or outcomes in your life on others and refusing to accept responsibility for own decisions or actions; a strong sense of belief in becoming a famous actor despite having absolutely no talent and being told so by those around you are some of the examples of self-serving bias. According to Glabraith (2004) hegemonic assumptions refer to the assumptions individuals embrace willingly in a bid to protect their best interests (p. 342) and safeguard them from any impending hurt or any other similar negative feelings such as guilt, anxiety, or fear. Such hegemonic assumptions prevent us from critically analyzing things as they are and blinds us from pursuing our best interests. Example: A strong belief in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s friends or relatives and blindly following their advice without thinking or analyzing the intended purpose and expected outcome is one example of hegemonic assumptions. It refers to the tendency among individuals to perceive reality with a highly biased attitudes based on stereotypes and unwarranted
Monday, November 18, 2019
Small scale action research study - Essay Example Findings V. Analysis and Interpretation VI. Conclusion and Recommendations Small Scale Action Research Study I. Introduction This research study deals with how years 1 and 2 primary school children in my school approach reading; these children are aged five to six years. The research study is aimed at not only finding out how their reading skills can be improved, but also how this relates to the previous reading levels in my school. Reading among these children has been gradually deteriorating with time. It has been characterized by several difficulties. The nature of these reading problems coincides with what most reputable scholarly researchers have already studied sometime back cons in relation to this. The nature of the problems of readers who are struggling is quite complex. Over time, study has indicated that the complexity emanates from the individual differences that are present within any group that undertakes a reading. The reading struggle among the children is characteriz ed by the different approaches, skills, and dispositions. This makes it difficult for those reading to make sense of the print. Studies continue to reveal that both poor decoding and poor comprehension are among examples of aspects that struggling readers may posses. Besides, they also have difficulties in both vocabulary and language skills (Allington and McGill-Franzen, 2009, p. 221). Since September 2010, the Early Reading Research (ERR) has been used in my school. Since the time it was introduced, I have taken note of reading improvement among the children. The schools has teaching assistants who are not only experienced, but also industrious, and have really been surprised by the steps of improvement in reading levels attained by the children up to this far. I am still not certain of the fact that the National Literacy Strategy is the best approach to reading in our schools, due to the observed worsening trend of the reading level among the children. Before the National Literac y Strategy came into force, there was another Reading programme referred to as the Early Reading Research by Essex Lea. Thus the research question in this study is how effective is the Early Reading Research (ERR) by Essex Lea in solving the reading problem of children in my school? Interest for this area of study is motivated by the outcomes of the recently carried out research by the Essex Lea and the Leverhulme Trust on the efficiency of the Early Reading Research in comparison to other reading programmes. The study was based on classroom empirical investigations that was carried out on a large scale basis coupled with small scale cases to establish how childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning could be impacted with various principles of instruction. Apart from establishing the most efficient methods of teaching reading, Early Reading Research was also used in examining not only the level to which age and skill reading targets could be reached by each child, but also the prevention of particul ar difficulties in reading. This research study encompasses various sections that reveal the literature review, method of data collection, findings, analysis and interpretation, and conclusion together with recommendations. II. Literature Review a. The Significance of Reading Most people do not just take reading lightly, but also they do not easily see how difficult life can be for those who have not read. Print is available at almost every place that surrounds us that is on adverts, shop names, product instructions and novels, just to mention but a
Friday, November 15, 2019
Design of Handshake Mode Design Of Handshake Mode 8255A Using 8086 Introduction: 8255 is a widely used general purpose programmable devices, can be compatible with any microprocessor. The 8255 includes three programmable ports, one of which can be used for bidirectional data transfer. This is an important additional feature in comparison with the 8155 I/O ports. The 8255 has 24 I/0 pins that can be grouped primarily in two 8 bit parallel ports. A B, with the remaining eight bits as port c. the eight ports of port c can be used as individual bits or be grouped in two 4-bit ports. The figure shows all the functions of 8255, classified according to two modes: the BSR mode and I/P mode. The BSR mode is used to set or reset the bits in port c. the I/O mode is further divided into three modes : mode 0, mode 1 and mode 2. In mode 0, all the ports function as simple I/O ports. Mode 1, is a handshake mode where by ports A and/or B use bits from port C as handshake signals. In the handshake mode, two types of I/P data can be transferred implemented: status check and inter rupt. In mode 2, port A can be set up for bidirectional data transfer using handshake signals from port C, and port B can be used to set up either in mode 0 or mode 1. Programmable Parallel Ports And Handshake Input/Output: We use port devices to input data and output data to the microprocessor. Most of the available port devices such as 8255A on the sdk-86 board, contain two or three ports which can be programmed to operate in one of the several different modes. The different modes allow us to see for many common types of parallel data transfer. Various methods of parallel input data transfer are Simple Input/Output: When we need to get the digital data from a simple switch such as thermostat into a microprocessor all we do is that we connect the switch to an input port line and read it anytime. Similarly when we need to output the data to a simple output device such as an LED, all we do is to connect the led buffer on an output port pin and output the logic level required to turn on the light. The led is always there and ready, so you can send data to it at any time. Simple Strobe I/O: In many applications, valid data is present on an external device only at a certain time, so it must be read in at that time. An example of this is the ascii-encoded keyboard. When key is pressed. Circuitry on the key board sends out the ascii code for the pressed key on eight parallel data lines, and then sends out a strobe signal on another line to indicate the valid data is present on the eight data lines. As shown in fig-4.9 we can connect this strobe line to an input port line and poll it to determine when we can put valid data from the keyboard. Another alternative is to connect the strobe line to an interrupt input of the processor and have an interrupt service procedure read in the data when the processor receives an interrupt. The point here is that this transfer is time dependent. We can read the data only when a strobe pulse tells us that the data is valid. Fig 9 1b shows the timing waveforms which represent this type of operation. The sending device such as a keyboard, outputs parallel data on the data lines, and then outputs at the stb signal to let us know that the valid data is present. For low rates of data transfer such as from a keyboard to a microprocessor, a simple strobe transfer works well. However for higher data transfer speed this method does not work because there is no signal which tells the sending device when it is safe to send the next data byte. In other words, he sending system might send data bytes faster than the receiving system could read them. To prevent this problem a handshake data transfer scheme is used. Single-Handshake I/O: figure 9-2 shows the circuit connections and figure 91-c shows some example timing waveforms for a handshake data transfer from a peripheral device to a microprocessor. The peripheral outputs some parallel data and sends stb signal on a polled or interrupt basis and reads in the byte of data. Then the microprocessor sends a acknowledgement signal to the peripheral to indicate that the data has been read and the peripheral can send the next byte of data from the view point of the microprocessor this operation is referred to as handshake or strobe input. These same wave forms might represent a handshake output from a microprocessor to parallel printer. In this case the microprocessor outputs a character to the printer and asserts an stb signal to the printer to tell the printer , Ã¢â¬Å" here is a character for you.Ã¢â¬ When the printer is ready it answers back with ack signal to tell the microprocessor, Ã¢â¬Å" I got that oneÃ¢â¬ send me another. The point of this handshake sche me is that the sending device or system is designed so that it does not send the next data byte until the receiving device or system indicates with an ack signal that it is ready to receive the next byte. Double-Handshake Data Transfer: For data transfers where even more coordination is required between the sending system and the receiving system a double handshake is used the sending device asserts its stb line low to ask Ã¢â¬Å" are you readyÃ¢â¬ ? the receiving system raises its ack line high to say I m ready. The peripheral device then sends the byte of data and raises its stb line high to say I have the data thank you. And I wait your next request to send the next byte of data. For handshake output of this type from a microprocessor to a peripheral the waveforms are the same but the microprocessor sends the stb signal and the data the peripheral sends the ack signal. In the accompanying laboratory manual it is shown hoe to interface with a speech-synthesizer device using this type of handshake system. Implementing Handshake Data Transfer: For handshake data transfer a microprocessor can determine when it is time to send the next data byte on a polled or interrupt basis. The interrupt approach is usually used because it makes better use of the processors time. The stb or ack signal for these handshake transfers can be produced on a port pin by instructions in the program. However this method usually uses too much processor time, do parallel port devices such as the 8255A have been designed to automatically manage the handshake operation. The 8255A for example can be programmed to automatically receive an stb signal from a peripheral, send an interrupt signal to the processor and send the ack signal to the peripheral at the proper times. 8255A Internal Block Diagram And System Connections: The diagram shows the internal structure of the 8255A. form the diagram it is observed that there are 24 input output lines. Port A can be used as an 8 bit input port or as an output port. Like port B can be used as an 8 bit input port or as an 8 bit output port. Port C can b used as an 8 bit input output port or as 4 bit port or to produce handshake signals for ports a nd b. the signal lines used to connect to the device to the system busses. 8 data lines allow us to write data bytes to a port or the control register and to read bytes from the port or the status register under the control of the rd wr lines. The address inputs A0 and A1 allow us to selectively access one of the three ports or the control register. The internal addresses for the device are port A 00, port B, 01; port C;10; control, 11. Asserting the cs input of the 8255A enables it for reading or writing. The cs input will be connected to the output of the address decoder circuitry to select the device when it is addressed. The reset input of the 8255A is connected to the system reset line so that, when the system is reset all the port lines are initialized as input lines.this is done to prevent destruction of circuitry connected to port lines. If port lines are initialized as outputs after a power up or reset the port might try to output to the output of the device connected to the port. The possible argument between the two outputs might destroy one or both of them. Therefore all the programmable port devices initialize their port lines as inputs when reset. The given figure shows that how a 8255 can be connected to a 8086, here one 8255 is connected to the lower half of the 8086 data bus and the other is conneceted to the upper half of the 8086. This is done so that byte can be transferred by enabling one device, or a word can be transferred by enabiling both devices at the same time. According to truth table for the input output port address decoder the A40 8255A on the lower half of the data bus will be enabled for a base address of FFF8H, and the A35 8255A will be enabled for a base address of FFF9H. another point to notice is that system address line A1 is connected to the 8255A A0 inputs, and system address line A2 is connected to the 8255A A1 inputs. With these connections the system address for the three ports and the control register in the A 40 8255A will be FFF8H, FFFAH, FFFCH, FFFEH. Likewise the system address for three ports and the control register of the A 35 8255A are FFF9H, FFFBH, FFFDH, and FFFFH. 8255a Operational Modes And Initiallization: MODE 0: When we want to see the port for simple input or output without handshaking we initialize the port in mode 0. If both port A and port B are initialized in mode 0, then the two halves of port c can be used together as an additional 8-bit port or they can be used individually as two 4 bit ports. When used as outputs, the port c lines can be individually set or reset by sending a special control word to the control register address. The two halves of port C are independent so one half can be initialized as input and the other half as output. MODE 1: When we want to use port A or port B for handshake input or output operation. We initialize that the port in MODE 1. In this mode some of the pins in port C function as handshake lines. Pins PCO, PC1 and PC2 function as handshake lines for port B if it is initialized in MODE1. If port A is initialized as handshake mode input port then pins PC3,PC4,and PC5 function as handshake signals. Pins PC6 and PC7 are avalible for use as input lines and output lines. If port A is initialized as a handshake output port, then port c pins PC3,PC6,PC7 function as handshake signals. Port c pins PC4 and PC5 are available for use as input or output lines. Since the 8255 often used in mode 1. MODE 2: Only port a can be initialized in mode 2 port a can be used for bidirectional handshake data transfer. This means that data can be output or input on the same eight lines. The 8255A might be used in this mode to extend the system bus to slave microprocessor or to transfer data bytes to and from a floppy disk controller board. If port A is initialized in MODE 2 then PINS PC3 through PC7 are used as handshake lines in port A. the other three pins PC0 through PC2 can be used for input output if port B is in mode 0. The three pins will be used for port B handshake lines if port b is initialized in mode 1. Constructing And Sending 8255A Control Words: Figure 9-5 shows the formats for the two 8255A control words. Note that the msb of the control word tells the 8255A which control word your are sending it. We use the mode definition control word format to tell the device what modes we want the ports to operate in. we use the bit set /reset control word format . we want to set or reset the output on a pin of port c or when we want to enable the interrupt output signals for the handshake data transfers. Both control words are sent to the control register address of the 8255A. as usual, initializing a device such as this consists of working our way through the steps as described already. As an example for this device suppose that we want to initialize the 8255A in figure 7-8 as follows. Port B as mode 1 input Port A mode 0 output Port C upper as inputs Port C bit 3 as output The base address of the A40 8255A is FFF8H, and the control register address is FFFEH. The next step is to make up the control by figuring out what to put in each of the little boxes, one bit at a time. Figure 9-6a shows the control word which will program the 8255A as desired for this example. The figure alsi shows how we should document any control words to make for use in our programs using figure 9-5 a work our way through this word to make sure we see why each bit has the value it does. To send the control word we load the control word in AL with a MOV AL,10001110B instruction point DX at the port address with the MOV DX,0FFFEH instruction and send the control word to the 8255A control register with the out DX, AL instruction. An example of how to use the bit set/reset control word suppose that we want to output a 1 to (set) bit 3 of port c, which was initialized as an output with the mode set control word above. To set or reset a port c output pin, we use the bit set/reset control word shown in figure. Make bit d7 to 0 to identify this as a bit set/reset control word and put a 1 in bit d0 to specify that we want to set a bit of port c. bits d2 d3 and d1 are used to tell the 8255A which bit we want to act on. For this example we want to set bit 3 so we put 011 in these three bits. For simplicity and compatibility with future products make the other 3 bits of the control words 0. The result 00000111B is shown with proper documentation in the figure. To send this control word to the 8255A simply load it into AL with the MOV AL,00000111B instruction, point dx at the control register address with the MOV DX ,0FFFEH instruction if DX is not already pointing there, and send the control word with the OUT DX,AL instruction. 8255A Handshake- Interfacing To A Microcomputer- Controlled Lathe: All the machines in the machine shop of our computer controlled electronics factory operate under microcomputer. One example of these machines is a lathe which makes bolts for long rods of stainless steel. The cutting instructions of each type of bolt that we need to make are stored on Ã ¾ in wode teletype like metal tape. Each instruction is represented by a series of holes in the tape. A tape reader pulls the through an optical or mechanical sensor to detect the hole patterns and converts these to an 8 bit parallel code. The microcomputer reads the instruction codes for the tape reader on a handshake basis and sends the appropriate control instructions to the lathe. The microcomputer must also monitor various conditions around the lathe. It must, for example make sure the lathe has cutting lubricant oil, is not out of material to work on, and is not jammed up in some way. Machines that operate in this way are often referred to as computer numerical control or CNC machines. The figure given shows from how we might use an 8255A to interface a microcomputer to the tape reader and lathe. Our first task is to make up the control word which will initialize the 8255A In the correct modes for this application. To do this start by making a list showing how we want each port or group of pins to function. Then put in the control word bits that implement those pin functions. Port A needs to be initialized for handshake input ( mode 1 ) because instruction codes have to be read in from the tape reader on the handshake basis. Port B needs to be initialized for simple output (mode 0) no handshaking is needed here because this port is being used to output simple on or off control signals to the lathe. Port C , bits pc0 pc1 and pc2 are used for simple input of sensor signals for the lathe. Port C bits pc3 pc4 and pc5 function as the handshake signals for the data transfer from thr tape reader connected to port A. Port C bit pc6 is used for output of the stop/go signal to the tape reader. Port C bit pc7 is not used for this example. Figure 9-b shows the control word to initialize the 8255A for these pin functions. We send this word to the control register address of the 8255A.In order for the handshake input data transfer from the tape reader to work correctly , the interrupt request signal from bit pc3 has to be enabled. This is done by sending a bit set/reset control word for the appropriate bit of port c. fig 9-9 shows the port c bit that must be set to enable the interrupt output signal for each of the 8255A handshake modes. For example here port A is being used for handshake input, so according to figure 9-9 port C bit pc4 must be set to enable the interrupt output for this operation. The bit set/reset control word to do this is 00001001B. we send this bit set/reset control word to the control address of the 8255A. Handshake data transfer from the tape reader to the 8255A can be stopped by disabling the 8255A interrupt output on port C, pin c3. This is done by reseting bit pc4 with a bit set/reset control word of 00001000. As another example of 8255A interrupt output enabling suppose that we are using port B as handshake output port. According to figure 9-9 we need to set bit pc2 to enable the 8255A interrupt output signal. The bit set/reset control word to do this is 00000101. Now we see how the actual data transfer takes place in handshake mode for which the machine would operate. After initializing everything we would probably read port C, bits pc0 pc1 and pc2 to check if the lathe was ready to operate. For any 8255A mode we read port C by simplt going an input from the port C address. Then we output a start command to the tape reader on the bit pc6.this is done with a bit set/reset command. Assuming that we want to reset bit pc6 to start the tape reader, the bit set/reset control word for this is 00001100. When the tape reader receives the go command. It will start the handshake data transfer to the 8255A. The tape reader starts the process by sending out a byte of data by sending out a byte of data to port A on its eight data lines. The tape reader then asserts its stb line low to tell the 8255A that a new byte of data has been sent. In response the 8255A raises its input buffer full (IBF) signal on pc5 high to tell the tape reader that it is ready for the data. When the tape reader detects the IBF signal at a high level, it raises its stb signal high again. The rising edge of the stb signal has two effects on the 8255A. it first latches the data byte in the input latches of the 8255A. once the data is latched the tape reader can remove the data byte in preparation for sending the next data byte. This is shown by the dashed section on the right side of the data waveform in figure. The rising edge on the stb signal will cause the 8255A to output an interruot request signal in the microprocessor on bit pc3. The processors response to the interrupt request will be to go to an interrupt service procedure which reads in the byte of data latched in port A. when the RD signal from the microprocessor goes low for this read of port A, the 8255A will automatically reset its interrupt request signa on pc3. This is done so that a second interrupt cannot be caused by the sane data transfer, when the processor raises its RD signal high again at the end of the read operation, the 8255A automatically drops its IBF signal on pc5 low again. IBF going low again is the signal to the tape reader that the data transfer is complete and that it can be send the next byte of data. The time between when the 8255A sends the interrupt request signal and when the processor reads the data byte from port A depends on when the processor gets around to servicing that interrupt. The point here is that this time doesnt matter. The tape reader will not send the next byte until it detects the IBF signal has gone low again . The transfer cycle will then repeat for the next data byte. After the processor reads in the lathe control instruction byte from the tape reader, it will decode this instruction and output the appropriate control byte to the lathe on port B of the 8255A. the tape reader then sends the next instruction byte. If the instruction tape is made into a continuous loop, the lathe will keep making the specified parts until it runs out of material. The unused bit of port c , pc7 could be connected to a mechanism which loads In more material so the lathe can continue. Parallel Printer InterfaceÃ¢â¬âHandshake Output Example: This refers to the hardware connections and the software required to interface with a parallel printer in a system which does not have a BIOS procedure we can all to do the job. For most common printers such as IBM pc printers, the Epson dot matrix printers data to be printed is sent to the printers, and the Panasonic dot-matrix printers data printed is sent to the printer as ASCII characters on eight parallel lines. The printer receives the characters to be printed and stores them in an internal RAM buffer. When the printer detects a second carriage return, It prints out the second row of characters, etc. the process continues until all the desired characters have been printed. Transfer of the ASCII codes from a microcomputer to a printer must be done on a handshake basis because the microcomputer can send characters much faster than the printer can print them. The printer must in some way let the microcomputer know that its buffer is full and that it cannot accept any more characters until ir prints some out. A common standard for interfacing with parallel printers is the centronics parallel interface standard, named for the company that developed it. References: Microprocessors and interfacing programming and hardware second edition by Douglas V. Hall TATA McGRAW-hill edition. Microprocessor architecture, programming, and applications with the 8085 by Ramesh Gaonkar fifth edition, penram international publication Fundementals of microprocessor and microcomputers byB. Ram, Dhanpat Raipublication.